Recent developments in artificial intelligence urge clarification of its ethical and legal status.The issue revolves around the concept of subjectness, distinguishing active and responsible conduct from inert performance. We analyze this notion from a physical viewpoint, building on the quantum-theoretic refinement of the concept of uncertainty into quantum and classical types: quantum uncertainty refers to an objective freedom to construct the future, while classical uncertainty denotes subjective ignorance of present states of nature.
Subjectness of intelligence is then defined by the kind of uncertainty it is capable to resolve. To analyze different aspects of intelligence, quantum-inspired definitions of decision, subjectness, originality, and meaning are introduced on this basis. These concepts are first calibrated on natural intelligence and then applied to artificial systems, classified as classical and quantum. Classical AI then appears fundamentally alien to subjectness due
to its algorithmic nature, limited to the resolution of classical uncertainty. Quantum AI, in
contrast, breaks this limit by hosting some degree of proto-subjectness on the level of elementary
particles, involved in its operation. Fundamentally, our approach tracks alternative
views on subjectness of intelligence to the interpretations of quantum randomness, identifying
both as different sides of the same ethical dilemma. Quantum physics then provides
fertile ground for possible solutions, aligned with Eastern and Western views on freedom
and constraint, subject and context in social life. These results offer a scientific approach to
the controversial challenges of socio-technological development, integrating physical and
humanitarian perspectives.
Язык оригиналарусский
ЖурналFoundations of Science
СостояниеЭлектронная публикация перед печатью - 2 апр 2024

    Области исследований

  • Intelligence · Subject · Uncertainty · Freedom · Ethics · Quantum · Law

ID: 118467796