In flowering plants, seeds serve as organs of both propagation and dispersal. The developing seed passes through several consecutive stages, following a conserved general outline. The overall time needed for a seed to develop, however, may vary both within and between plant spe-cies, and these temporal developmental properties remain poorly understood. In the present pa-per, we summarize the existing data for seed development alterations in dicot plants. For genetic mutations, the reported cases were grouped in respect of the key processes distorted in the mutant specimens. Similar phenotypes arising from the environmental influence, either biotic or abiotic, were also considered. Based on these data, we suggest several general trends of timing alterations and how respective mechanisms might add to the ecological plasticity of the families considered. We also propose that the developmental timing alterations may be perceived as an evolutionary substrate for heterochronic events. Given the current lack of plausible models describing timing control in plant seeds, the presented suggestions might provide certain insights for future studies in this field.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9252
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number17
StatePublished - 1 Sep 2021

    Research areas

  • Development, Dicots, Embryogenesis, Heterochrony, Plants, Seed, Timing

    Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry

ID: 92113534