AIM: To present one of the largest materials of video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) anatomic lung resections in Russia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: It is a retrospective analysis of treatment of 246 patients who underwent VATS anatomic lung resection for the period from 2010 to 2014 at the Center for Thoracic Surgery of St. Petersburg Clinical Hospital №122. One surgical team has operated 125 men and 121 women aged from 20 to 85 years (58.8±13.4 years). There were 216 (87.8%) lobectomies, 4 (1.6%) bilobectomies, 9 (3.7%) pneumonectomies, 10 (4.1%) segmentectomies and 7 (2.8%) trisegmentectomies. Upper right-side lobectomy was the most frequent in this group (87 (40.3%)). Most of operations was performed via 2 approaches (119 patients). Average length of the longest incision was 4.3±0.93 cm (range 2-6 cm). All patients were examined according to a single plan. FEV1 less than 70% was observed in 26% of patients; comorbidity index was 5 scores or more in 24% of cases; 23.2% of patients were older than 70 years. RESULTS: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was diagnosed in 168 patients (68.3%), pulmonary tuberculosis - in 27 (11%), chronic suppurative lung disease - in 27 (11%) cases. Furthermore there were 9 cases of pulmonary metastases, 11 cases of carcinoid, 1 - MALT-lymphoma, 1 - leiomyoma, 2 - small cell lung cancer, as well as one case of IgG-associated pseudotumor. Among 168 cases of NSCLC operations were performed in 87 (51.8%) cases for cancer stage I, in 46 (27.3%) patients for stage II, in 27 patients for stage III (including 16 cases of stage IIIA and 11 cases of stage IIIB). 8 patients (4.7%) with lung cancer stage IV have been operated in radical surgery for solitary metastasis. Mean duration of surgery was 202.1±58.2 minutes (range 100-380). On the average 12.8±5.6 (range 9-32) mediastinal lymph nodes were excised during lymph node dissection in cancer patients. Mean number of nodes groups was 4.1±1.1. In 11 (4.5%) patients conversion to open surgery was made due to intraoperative bleeding (3 cases) and technical difficulties (8 cases). Mean duration of postoperative pleural drainage and hospital-stay were 5.1±4.3 (median - 3 days) and 7.9±4.7 days (median - 6 days) respectively. Complications which were not associated with perioperative deaths were observed in 66 patients (26.8%). Prolonged air vent was the most common complication. CONCLUSION: VATS anatomical lung resections are safe and effective in most of pulmonary surgical diseases. Such interventions may be recommended for wider introduction at the Thoracic Departments of Russia because of small number of complications and rapid rehabilitation. Bleeding or its risk associated with fibrotic changes in pulmonary root are the most frequent causes of conversion to open access.
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