The article surveys the views of Pashtun military-administrative elite on governance in the works of Khushal Khan Khatak (d. 1689) and Afzal Khan Khatak (d. circa 1740). The texts under discussion pertain to the universal literary genre of "Mirrors for Princes" (nasihat al-muluk) and include the Khatak chieftains' didactical writings in prose and verse, as well as still poorly studied documents on real politics from Afzal Khan's historiographical compilation "The Ornamented History" (Tarikh-i murassa). Rooted in the medieval Persian classics, early modern Pashto "mirrors" are distinguished by local ethnocultural peculiarities which manifest in shifting the very subject from statesmanship to chieftaincy and declaring regulations of the Pashtun unwritten Code of Honour. The study proves that the outlook and behavioural patterns of Pashtun tribal rulers stemmed from a combination, partly eclectic and contradictory, of Islamic precepts, feudal ideologies of the Mughal administrative system, and norms of the Pashtun customary law (Pashtunwali).
Предметные области Scopus
- Гуманитарные науки и искусство (все)