To date, the latest research results suggest that the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can enter host cells directly via the gastrointestinal tract by binding to the enterocyte-expressed ACE2 receptor, or indirectly as a result of infection of type II alveolar epithelial cells. At the same time, entry of SARS-CoV-2 through the gastrointestinal tract initiates the activation of innate and adaptive immune responses, the formation of an excessive inflammatory reaction and critical increase in the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, which, subsequently, can presumably increase inflammation and induce intestinal damage in patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aims of the present review were to reveal and analyze possible molecular pathways and consequences of the induction of an innate and adaptive immune response during infection with SARS-CoV-2 in patients with IBD. A thorough literature search was carried out by using the keywords: IBD, SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19. Based on the screening, a number of intracellular and extracellular pathways were considered and discussed, which can impact the immune response during SARS-CoV-2 infection in IBD patients. Additionally, the possible consequences of the infection for such patients were estimated. We further hypothesize that any virus, including the new SARS-CoV-2, infecting intestinal tissues and/or entering the host’s body through receptors located on intestinal enterocytes may be a trigger for the onset of IBD in individuals with a genetic predisposition and/or the risk of developing IBD associated with other factors.
Предметные области Scopus
- Молекулярная биология