Before the beginning of the 2000s, in the process of acquiring land in Russia, the main risks, that had to be analyzed and taken into account, were risks associated with the registration of land and with encumbrances. Issues, related to the ability to build on the land some constructed objects and carry out economic and other activities, as a rule, were not analyzed. The presence of zones with a special regime of land use allocated for environmental and sanitary requirements can significantly affect the achievement of the goal and have serious economic consequences. Land plots included in protected or protective zones are not taken away from land owners, land users and tenants, but within boundaries of these plots, a special regime for their use may be introduced, limiting or prohibiting those activities that are incompatible with the purpose of establishing such zones. The article devoted to the current legislative requirements for the establishment of zones with a special regime of land use in Russian Federation, allocated for environmental and sanitary requirements, the consequences of the presence of such zones, as well as ways to solve problems associated with these restrictions.