Trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs) are a class of sensory G protein-coupled receptors that detect biogenic amines, products of decarboxylation of amino acids. The majority of TAARs (TAAR2-TAAR9) have been described mainly in the olfactory epithelium and considered to be olfactory receptors sensing innate odors. However, there is recent evidence that one of the members of this family, TAAR5, is expressed also in the limbic brain areas receiving projection from the olfactory system and involved in the regulation of emotions. In this study, we further characterized a mouse line lacking TAAR5 (TAAR5 knockout, TAAR5-KO mice) that express beta-galactosidase mapping TAAR5 expression. We found that in TAAR5-KO mice the number of dopamine neurons, the striatal levels of dopamine and its metabolites, as well as striatal levels of GDNF mRNA, are elevated indicating a potential increase in dopamine neuron proliferation. Furthermore, an analysis of TAAR5 beta-galactosidase expression revealed that TAAR5 is present in the major neurogenic areas of the brain such as the subventricular zone (SVZ), the subgranular zone (SGZ) and the less characterized potentially neurogenic zone surrounding the 3rd ventricle. Direct analysis of neurogenesis by using specific markers doublecortin (DCX) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) revealed at least 2-fold increase in the number of proliferating neurons in the SVZ and SGZ of TAAR5-KO mice, but no such markers were detected in mutant or control mice in the areas surrounding the 3rd ventricle. These observations indicate that TAAR5 involved not only in regulation of emotional status but also adult neurogenesis and dopamine transmission. Thus, future TAAR5 antagonists may exert not only antidepressant and/or anxiolytic action but may also provide new treatment opportunity for neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease.
- Клеточная и молекулрная нейробиология