The term "globalization" has been a popular word among Russian politicians, academics, and journalists since the early 1990s. Even among academics, however, globalization remains a rather vague notion. Depending on their theoretical underpinnings or research objectives, Russian analysts offer quite different interpretations of this phenomenon. Following a brief overview of various prominent understandings, this chapter examines recent Russian national security doctrines to show how globalization has affected Russian security discourse. The chapter concludes with a more detailed look at understandings of globalization and security according to various paradigms of thought within Russian International Relations scholarship. Some Russian authors tend to equate globalization with cosmopolitism (Timofeev, 1999). The term "kosmopolites" stood even in ancient Greece for "citizens of the world," individuals who considered the whole of humankind as more important than their own state or native land. Similar globalist ideas can be traced in the writings of Hugo Grotius and Immanuel Kant. The Marxist paradigm, with its emphasis on a world system and mode of production, the cosmopolitan nature of capitalism and class struggle, and universal historical laws, also offered a globalist vision of international relations. Russian proponents of this definition of globalization note that, in the current world, perhaps the most important manifestation of cosmopolitanism is the increasing acceptance of and concern for freedoms and individual rights irrespective of state or national boundaries. However, this argument provokes heated debates, since states can invoke their claim to domestic jurisdiction and block outside interference with the freedoms and rights of their own citizens. Other Russian scholars understand globalization as a quantitative shift of several autonomous national economies toward a global marketplace for production, distribution, and technology (Neklessa, 1998). Similarly, globalization in terms of open-border relations has been associated with liberalization, while in terms of transborder and cross-border relations it connotes internationalization (Shishkov, 2001). For some authors, globalization may also be consonant with a number of other phenomena, such as the spread of liberal democracy, developments in the domain of information technology, and the worldwide impact of mass media. In describing these phenomena, such notions as "delocalization" and "planetarization" have been used (Makarychev, 2002; Molchanov, 1999). The mainstream of Russian political thought, however, describes globalization as a worldwide spread of common patterns of production, technology, management, social structures, political organization, culture, and values-a process that leads to the rise of supranational institutions and, ultimately, a single society (Makarychev & Sergounin, 2000: 398).
|Название основной публикации||Globalization, Security, and The Nation State|
|Подзаголовок основной публикации||Paradigms in Transition|
|ISBN (печатное издание)||9780791464014|
|Состояние||Опубликовано - 1 дек 2005|
Предметные области Scopus
- Социальные науки (все)