Problems in relations between Russia and China, as well as the states of Central Asia are defined in the article. The work demonstrates that Chinese diplomats held a series of negotiations to resolve issues of regulating border issues with the post-Soviet states bordering on the China. The result was the resolution of issues of demarcation of state border between the former Soviet republics and China during the 90s of XX century. However, an unequivocal assessment does not exist on the issue of the legality of border’s demarcation with China in the public opinion of the post-Soviet states. The Uygur question remains another important issue in relations between the China and the countries of Central Asia. The leadership of modern China, realizing the internal geopolitical danger that is caused by the desire of separatist-minded Uyghur national organizations to achieve the creation of their independent state, pursues a policy to increase the economic level of region’s development. The government is interested in strengthening ties with the border areas of the countries of Central Asia, where representatives of the Uyghur people live.