Abstract—Chlorophylls (Chls) are the unique tetrapyrrole molecules essential not only for the photosynthesizing organisms but for the entire biosphere. Their biosynthesis is closely connected with the plant cell morphogenesis and the photosynthetic reactions that store and transfer the light energy. Pigment mutants of plants and microorganisms are commonly used for the studies of the Chl biosynthesis and degradation pathways. Methods of genetics and genomics made it possible not only to identify the genes controlling the enzymes of the Chl metabolism but also to study their regulation mechanisms. The history and the recent state of the findings on the genetic determination and evolution of the Chl formation are presented in this review.