Cell-to-cell signaling is responsible for regulation of many developmental processes such as proliferation, cell migration, survival, cell fate specification and axis patterning. In this article we discussed the role of signaling in the metamorphosis of sponges with a focus on epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) accompanying this event. Sponges (Porifera) are an ancient lineage of morphologically simple animals occupying a basal position on the tree of life. The study of these animals is necessary for understanding the origin of multicellularity and the evolution of developmental processes. Development of sponges is quite diverse. It finishes with the metamorphosis of a free-swimming larva into a young settled sponge. The outer surface of sponge larvae consists of a ciliated epithelial sheath, which ensures locomotion, while their internal structure varies from genus to genus. The fate of larval ciliated cells is the most intriguing aspect of metamorphosis. In this review we discuss the fate of larval ciliated cells, the processes going on in cells during metamorphosis at the molecular level and the regulation of this process. The review is based on information about several sponge species with a focus on Halisarca dujardini, Sycon ciliatum and Amphimedon queenslandica. In our model sponge, H. dujardini, ciliated cells leave the larval epithelium during metamorphosis and migrate to the internal cell mass as amoeboid cells to be differentiated into choanocytes of the juvenile sponge. Ciliated cells undergo EMT and internalize within minutes. As EMT involves the disappearance of adherens junctions and as cadherin, the main adherens junction protein, was identified in the transcriptome of several sponges, we suppose that EMT is regulated through cadherin-containing adherens junctions between ciliated cells. We failed to identify the master genes of EMT in the H. dujardini transcriptome, possibly because transcription was absent in the sequenced stages. They may be revealed by a search in the genome. The master genes themselves are controlled by various signaling pathways. Sponges have all the six signaling pathways conserved in Metazoa: Wnt, TGF-beta, Hedgehog, Notch, FGF and NO-dependent pathways. Summarizing the new data about intercellular communication in sponges, we can put forward two main questions regarding metamorphosis: (1) Which of the signaling pathways and in what hierarchical order are involved in metamorphosis? (2) How is the organization of a young sponge related to that of the larva or, in other words, is there a heredity of axes between the larva and the adult sponge?
|Журнал||Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology|
|Состояние||Электронная публикация перед печатью - 1 янв 2019|
Предметные области Scopus
- Биохимия, генетика и молекулярная биология (все)
- Структурная биология