In this work, dense and supported pervaporation polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-based membranes modified with poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate)(PSS)/PAH top nanolayers were synthesized. Two main points were investigated: the role of the polyelectrolyte PAH on water selectivity of the selective polymer matrix and the impact of the porous substrate based on polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and aromatic polysulfone amide (UPM-20®), used to get supported high-performance membranes. Various methods of analysis (fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), porosity, contact angles, ultrafiltration) were applied to study the developed membranes. Transport characteristics of the developed membranes were studied in isopropanol dehydration by pervaporation. Obtained results are discussed in the light of the structure and physicochemical characteristics of these PVA/PAH membranes and the types of porous substrate. It was shown that the PAN-supported membrane with the selective layer based on PVA/PAH modified by 10 polyelectrolyte PSS/PAH bilayers possessed ~4.5 times higher permeation flux with the same high selectivity level (99.9 wt % water in the permeate) for the dehydration of the isopropanol (20 wt % water) at 60 °C compared to the commercial analog PERVAPTM 1201.