While overt hypothyroidism is a well-known risk factor for infertility, the association of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) or thyroid autoimmunity and reproductive failure has been still not elucidated. In this literature review, the current data on the effect of SCH and/or thyroid autoimmunity and human reproduction is presented. The main ART outcome measures are as follows: number of oocytes retrieved, fertilization rate, implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate per embryo transfer, embryo quality, miscarriage rate, and live birth rate. Current guidelines on the management of women with SCH and/or thyroid autoimmunity undergoing ART cycles will be presented in this review.
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