The formation of layer-heterogeneous periodic magnetic states in metallic systems is explained in terms of the dependence of the energy of itinerant electrons on the magnetic ordering of localized spins. The interaction of the local magnetic moments with conduction electrons with a certain spin projection is described by a set of spin-dependent δ-function potentials. A matrix method is developed permitting one to calculate the energy spectrum and the density of states of itinerant electrons in the presence of a layered magnetic heterogeneity. This method is used to explain oscillations of the interlayer exchange interaction in metallic magnetic superlattices and the stabilization of spin-density wave structures in transition metals and alloys. © 2009 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.