The purpose of this study is to identify and justify means of enhancing effectiveness of pedagogical communication and to develop the training program aimed to improving interaction of students and lecturers in typical problem situations. The results of the study of lecturers’ views reveal the specifics of conflicts in interactions with students. The outcomes of the comparative and correlation analysis of self-evaluations of lecturers with different pedagogical experience are substantiated. The assumption that the basis of the problems of communication lies in the low level of lecturers’ reflection is confirmed. The developed program of training of communicative skills of a lecturer through the growth of pedagogical reflection and the results of its application are described. The article concludes with a discussion of the importance of pedagogical reflection for successful interaction of students and lecturers.