The new higher level classification of eukaryotes with emphasis on the taxonomy of protists

Sina M. Adl, Alastair G.B. Simpson, Mark A. Farmer, Robert A. Andersen, O. Roger Anderson, John R. Barta, Samuel S. Bowser, Guy Brugerolle, Robert A. Fensome, Suzanne Fredericq, Timothy Y. James, Sergei Karpov, Paul Kugrens, John Krug, Christopher E. Lane, Louise A. Lewis, Jean Lodge, Denis H. Lynn, David G. Mann, Richard M. MccourtLeonel Mendoza, Øjvind Moestrup, Sharon E. Mozley-Standridge, Thomas A. Nerad, Carol A. Shearer, Alexey V. Smirnov, Frederick W. Spiegel, Max F.J.R. Taylor

Research outputpeer-review

1132 Citations (Scopus)


This revision of the classification of unicellular eukaryotes updates that of b18Levine et al. (1980) for the protozoa and expands it to include other protists. Whereas the previous revision was primarily to incorporate the results of ultrastructural studies, this revision incorporates results from both ultrastructural research since 1980 and molecular phylogenetic studies. We propose a scheme that is based on nameless ranked systematics. The vocabulary of the taxonomy is updated, particularly to clarify the naming of groups that have been repositioned. We recognize six clusters of eukaryotes that may represent the basic groupings similar to traditional "kingdoms." The multicellular lineages emerged from within monophyletic protist lineages: animals and fungi from Opisthokonta, plants from Archaeplastida, and brown algae from Stramenopiles.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)399-451
Number of pages53
JournalJournal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2005

Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology

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