The chronology of investigations and geomorphological analysis of the underwater terrain in the abyssal parts of the Arctic Ocean is presented. History of airborne and ship-borne gravity and magnetic surveys is accompanied by the detail technical, quantitative and qualitative analysis of existing datasets and regional potential fields anomalies maps. The up-to date location maps show the MCS seismic coverage grid inside the Arctic Basin. The important geological structures are highlighted by detail fragments of both TWT and depth converted interpreted seismic sections. The composite velocity models calculated from DSS data along regional geotraverses are also present. The progress of the seismological observations over several decades presents a telling picture of distribution of hypocenters and focal mechanisms of the modern seismicity related to the mid-ocean spreading zone and its continuation onto the Laptev Sea shelf. The results of the Arctic Basin deep water seafloor sampling and drilling provide additional input to our knowledge base.