The complete genome sequence of the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis

F. Kunst, N. Ogasawara, I. Moszer, A. M. Albertini, G. Alloni, V. Azevedo, M. G. Bertero, P. Bessières, A. Bolotin, S. Borchert, R. Borriss, L. Boursier, A. Brans, M. Braun, S. C. Brignell, S. Bron, S. Brouillet, C. V. Bruschi, B. Caldwell, V. CapuanoN. M. Carter, S. K. Choi, J. J. Codani, I. F. Connerton, N. J. Cummings, R. A. Daniel, F. Denizot, K. M. Devine, A. Düsterhöft, S. D. Ehrlich, P. T. Emmerson, K. D. Entian, J. Errington, C. Fabret, E. Ferrari, D. Foulger, C. Fritz, M. Fujita, Y. Fujita, S. Fuma, A. Galizzi, N. Galleron, S. Y. Ghim, P. Glaser, A. Goffeau, E. J. Golightly, A. Lapidus, S. M. Lee, H. Liu, A. Sorokin

Research output

2869 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Bacillus subtilis is the best-characterized member of the Gram-positive bacteria. Its genome of 4,214,810 base pairs comprises 4,100 protein-coding genes. Of these protein-coding genes, 53% are represented once, while a quarter of the genome corresponds to several gene families that have been greatly expanded by gene duplication, the largest family containing 77 putative ATP-binding transport proteins. In addition, a large proportion of the genetic capacity is devoted to the utilization of a variety of carbon sources, including many plant-derived molecules. The identification of five signal peptidase genes, as well as several genes for components of the secretion apparatus, is important given the capacity of Bacillus strains to secrete large amounts of industrially important enzymes. Many of the genes are involved in the synthesis of secondary metabolites, including antibiotics, that are more typically associated with Streptomyces species. The genome contains at least ten prophages or remnants of prophages, indicating that bacteriophage infection has played an important evolutionary role in horizontal gene transfer, in particular in the propagation of bacterial pathogenesis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)249-256
Number of pages8
JournalNature
Volume390
Issue number6657
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 20 Nov 1997

Fingerprint

Gram-Positive Bacteria
Bacillus subtilis
Prophages
Genome
Carrier Proteins
Genes
Gene Components
Horizontal Gene Transfer
Gene Duplication
Streptomyces
Base Pairing
Bacteriophages
Bacillus
Proteins
Carbon
Adenosine Triphosphate
Anti-Bacterial Agents
Enzymes
Infection

Scopus subject areas

  • General

Cite this

Kunst, F., Ogasawara, N., Moszer, I., Albertini, A. M., Alloni, G., Azevedo, V., ... Sorokin, A. (1997). The complete genome sequence of the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Nature, 390(6657), 249-256. https://doi.org/10.1038/36786
Kunst, F. ; Ogasawara, N. ; Moszer, I. ; Albertini, A. M. ; Alloni, G. ; Azevedo, V. ; Bertero, M. G. ; Bessières, P. ; Bolotin, A. ; Borchert, S. ; Borriss, R. ; Boursier, L. ; Brans, A. ; Braun, M. ; Brignell, S. C. ; Bron, S. ; Brouillet, S. ; Bruschi, C. V. ; Caldwell, B. ; Capuano, V. ; Carter, N. M. ; Choi, S. K. ; Codani, J. J. ; Connerton, I. F. ; Cummings, N. J. ; Daniel, R. A. ; Denizot, F. ; Devine, K. M. ; Düsterhöft, A. ; Ehrlich, S. D. ; Emmerson, P. T. ; Entian, K. D. ; Errington, J. ; Fabret, C. ; Ferrari, E. ; Foulger, D. ; Fritz, C. ; Fujita, M. ; Fujita, Y. ; Fuma, S. ; Galizzi, A. ; Galleron, N. ; Ghim, S. Y. ; Glaser, P. ; Goffeau, A. ; Golightly, E. J. ; Lapidus, A. ; Lee, S. M. ; Liu, H. ; Sorokin, A. / The complete genome sequence of the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. In: Nature. 1997 ; Vol. 390, No. 6657. pp. 249-256.
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abstract = "Bacillus subtilis is the best-characterized member of the Gram-positive bacteria. Its genome of 4,214,810 base pairs comprises 4,100 protein-coding genes. Of these protein-coding genes, 53{\%} are represented once, while a quarter of the genome corresponds to several gene families that have been greatly expanded by gene duplication, the largest family containing 77 putative ATP-binding transport proteins. In addition, a large proportion of the genetic capacity is devoted to the utilization of a variety of carbon sources, including many plant-derived molecules. The identification of five signal peptidase genes, as well as several genes for components of the secretion apparatus, is important given the capacity of Bacillus strains to secrete large amounts of industrially important enzymes. Many of the genes are involved in the synthesis of secondary metabolites, including antibiotics, that are more typically associated with Streptomyces species. The genome contains at least ten prophages or remnants of prophages, indicating that bacteriophage infection has played an important evolutionary role in horizontal gene transfer, in particular in the propagation of bacterial pathogenesis.",
author = "F. Kunst and N. Ogasawara and I. Moszer and Albertini, {A. M.} and G. Alloni and V. Azevedo and Bertero, {M. G.} and P. Bessi{\`e}res and A. Bolotin and S. Borchert and R. Borriss and L. Boursier and A. Brans and M. Braun and Brignell, {S. C.} and S. Bron and S. Brouillet and Bruschi, {C. V.} and B. Caldwell and V. Capuano and Carter, {N. M.} and Choi, {S. K.} and Codani, {J. J.} and Connerton, {I. F.} and Cummings, {N. J.} and Daniel, {R. A.} and F. Denizot and Devine, {K. M.} and A. D{\"u}sterh{\"o}ft and Ehrlich, {S. D.} and Emmerson, {P. T.} and Entian, {K. D.} and J. Errington and C. Fabret and E. Ferrari and D. Foulger and C. Fritz and M. Fujita and Y. Fujita and S. Fuma and A. Galizzi and N. Galleron and Ghim, {S. Y.} and P. Glaser and A. Goffeau and Golightly, {E. J.} and A. Lapidus and Lee, {S. M.} and H. Liu and A. Sorokin",
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Kunst, F, Ogasawara, N, Moszer, I, Albertini, AM, Alloni, G, Azevedo, V, Bertero, MG, Bessières, P, Bolotin, A, Borchert, S, Borriss, R, Boursier, L, Brans, A, Braun, M, Brignell, SC, Bron, S, Brouillet, S, Bruschi, CV, Caldwell, B, Capuano, V, Carter, NM, Choi, SK, Codani, JJ, Connerton, IF, Cummings, NJ, Daniel, RA, Denizot, F, Devine, KM, Düsterhöft, A, Ehrlich, SD, Emmerson, PT, Entian, KD, Errington, J, Fabret, C, Ferrari, E, Foulger, D, Fritz, C, Fujita, M, Fujita, Y, Fuma, S, Galizzi, A, Galleron, N, Ghim, SY, Glaser, P, Goffeau, A, Golightly, EJ, Lapidus, A, Lee, SM, Liu, H & Sorokin, A 1997, 'The complete genome sequence of the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis', Nature, vol. 390, no. 6657, pp. 249-256. https://doi.org/10.1038/36786

The complete genome sequence of the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. / Kunst, F.; Ogasawara, N.; Moszer, I.; Albertini, A. M.; Alloni, G.; Azevedo, V.; Bertero, M. G.; Bessières, P.; Bolotin, A.; Borchert, S.; Borriss, R.; Boursier, L.; Brans, A.; Braun, M.; Brignell, S. C.; Bron, S.; Brouillet, S.; Bruschi, C. V.; Caldwell, B.; Capuano, V.; Carter, N. M.; Choi, S. K.; Codani, J. J.; Connerton, I. F.; Cummings, N. J.; Daniel, R. A.; Denizot, F.; Devine, K. M.; Düsterhöft, A.; Ehrlich, S. D.; Emmerson, P. T.; Entian, K. D.; Errington, J.; Fabret, C.; Ferrari, E.; Foulger, D.; Fritz, C.; Fujita, M.; Fujita, Y.; Fuma, S.; Galizzi, A.; Galleron, N.; Ghim, S. Y.; Glaser, P.; Goffeau, A.; Golightly, E. J.; Lapidus, A.; Lee, S. M.; Liu, H.; Sorokin, A.

In: Nature, Vol. 390, No. 6657, 20.11.1997, p. 249-256.

Research output

TY - JOUR

T1 - The complete genome sequence of the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis

AU - Kunst, F.

AU - Ogasawara, N.

AU - Moszer, I.

AU - Albertini, A. M.

AU - Alloni, G.

AU - Azevedo, V.

AU - Bertero, M. G.

AU - Bessières, P.

AU - Bolotin, A.

AU - Borchert, S.

AU - Borriss, R.

AU - Boursier, L.

AU - Brans, A.

AU - Braun, M.

AU - Brignell, S. C.

AU - Bron, S.

AU - Brouillet, S.

AU - Bruschi, C. V.

AU - Caldwell, B.

AU - Capuano, V.

AU - Carter, N. M.

AU - Choi, S. K.

AU - Codani, J. J.

AU - Connerton, I. F.

AU - Cummings, N. J.

AU - Daniel, R. A.

AU - Denizot, F.

AU - Devine, K. M.

AU - Düsterhöft, A.

AU - Ehrlich, S. D.

AU - Emmerson, P. T.

AU - Entian, K. D.

AU - Errington, J.

AU - Fabret, C.

AU - Ferrari, E.

AU - Foulger, D.

AU - Fritz, C.

AU - Fujita, M.

AU - Fujita, Y.

AU - Fuma, S.

AU - Galizzi, A.

AU - Galleron, N.

AU - Ghim, S. Y.

AU - Glaser, P.

AU - Goffeau, A.

AU - Golightly, E. J.

AU - Lapidus, A.

AU - Lee, S. M.

AU - Liu, H.

AU - Sorokin, A.

PY - 1997/11/20

Y1 - 1997/11/20

N2 - Bacillus subtilis is the best-characterized member of the Gram-positive bacteria. Its genome of 4,214,810 base pairs comprises 4,100 protein-coding genes. Of these protein-coding genes, 53% are represented once, while a quarter of the genome corresponds to several gene families that have been greatly expanded by gene duplication, the largest family containing 77 putative ATP-binding transport proteins. In addition, a large proportion of the genetic capacity is devoted to the utilization of a variety of carbon sources, including many plant-derived molecules. The identification of five signal peptidase genes, as well as several genes for components of the secretion apparatus, is important given the capacity of Bacillus strains to secrete large amounts of industrially important enzymes. Many of the genes are involved in the synthesis of secondary metabolites, including antibiotics, that are more typically associated with Streptomyces species. The genome contains at least ten prophages or remnants of prophages, indicating that bacteriophage infection has played an important evolutionary role in horizontal gene transfer, in particular in the propagation of bacterial pathogenesis.

AB - Bacillus subtilis is the best-characterized member of the Gram-positive bacteria. Its genome of 4,214,810 base pairs comprises 4,100 protein-coding genes. Of these protein-coding genes, 53% are represented once, while a quarter of the genome corresponds to several gene families that have been greatly expanded by gene duplication, the largest family containing 77 putative ATP-binding transport proteins. In addition, a large proportion of the genetic capacity is devoted to the utilization of a variety of carbon sources, including many plant-derived molecules. The identification of five signal peptidase genes, as well as several genes for components of the secretion apparatus, is important given the capacity of Bacillus strains to secrete large amounts of industrially important enzymes. Many of the genes are involved in the synthesis of secondary metabolites, including antibiotics, that are more typically associated with Streptomyces species. The genome contains at least ten prophages or remnants of prophages, indicating that bacteriophage infection has played an important evolutionary role in horizontal gene transfer, in particular in the propagation of bacterial pathogenesis.

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U2 - 10.1038/36786

DO - 10.1038/36786

M3 - Article

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VL - 390

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EP - 256

JO - Nature

JF - Nature

SN - 0028-0836

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Kunst F, Ogasawara N, Moszer I, Albertini AM, Alloni G, Azevedo V et al. The complete genome sequence of the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Nature. 1997 Nov 20;390(6657):249-256. https://doi.org/10.1038/36786