TY - JOUR

T1 - State complexity of operations on two-way finite automata over a unary alphabet

AU - Kunc, Michal

AU - Okhotin, Alexander

PY - 2012/8/31

Y1 - 2012/8/31

N2 - The paper determines the number of states in two-way deterministic finite automata (2DFA) over a one-letter alphabet sufficient and in the worst case necessary to represent the results of basic language-theoretic operations on 2DFAs with a certain number of states. It is proved that (i) intersection of an m-state 2DFA and an n-state 2DFA requires between m+n and m+n+1 states; (ii) union of an m-state 2DFA and an n-state 2DFA, between m+n and 2m+n+4 states; (iii) Kleene star of an n-state 2DFA, (g(n)+O(n)) 2 states, where g(n) = e( 1+o(1))nlnn is the maximum value of lcm(p 1,⋯, p k) for ∑p i ≤ n, known as Landau's function; (iv) k-th power of an n-state 2DFA, between (k-1)g(n)-k and k(g(n)+n) states; (v) concatenation of an m-state 2DFA and an n-state 2DFA, e( 1+o(1))√(m+n)ln(m+n) states. It is furthermore demonstrated that the Kleene star of a two-way nondeterministic automaton (2NFA) with n states requires Θ(g(n)) states in the worst case, its k-th power requires (k·g(n)) Θ(1) states, and the concatenation of an m-state 2NFA and an n-state 2NFA, e Θ(√ m+n)ln(m+n)) states.

AB - The paper determines the number of states in two-way deterministic finite automata (2DFA) over a one-letter alphabet sufficient and in the worst case necessary to represent the results of basic language-theoretic operations on 2DFAs with a certain number of states. It is proved that (i) intersection of an m-state 2DFA and an n-state 2DFA requires between m+n and m+n+1 states; (ii) union of an m-state 2DFA and an n-state 2DFA, between m+n and 2m+n+4 states; (iii) Kleene star of an n-state 2DFA, (g(n)+O(n)) 2 states, where g(n) = e( 1+o(1))nlnn is the maximum value of lcm(p 1,⋯, p k) for ∑p i ≤ n, known as Landau's function; (iv) k-th power of an n-state 2DFA, between (k-1)g(n)-k and k(g(n)+n) states; (v) concatenation of an m-state 2DFA and an n-state 2DFA, e( 1+o(1))√(m+n)ln(m+n) states. It is furthermore demonstrated that the Kleene star of a two-way nondeterministic automaton (2NFA) with n states requires Θ(g(n)) states in the worst case, its k-th power requires (k·g(n)) Θ(1) states, and the concatenation of an m-state 2NFA and an n-state 2NFA, e Θ(√ m+n)ln(m+n)) states.

KW - Finite automata

KW - Landau's function

KW - Regular languages

KW - State complexity

KW - Two-way automata

KW - Unary languages

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84863578816&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.tcs.2012.04.010

DO - 10.1016/j.tcs.2012.04.010

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84863578816

VL - 449

SP - 106

EP - 118

JO - Theoretical Computer Science

JF - Theoretical Computer Science

SN - 0304-3975

ER -