Amyloids are β-sheets-rich protein fibrils that cause neurodegenerative and other incurable human diseases affecting millions of people worldwide. However, a number of proteins is functional in the amyloid state in various organisms from bacteria to humans. Using an original proteomic approach, we identified a set of proteins forming amyloid-like aggregates in the brain of young healthy rats. One of them is the FXR1 protein, which is known to regulate memory and emotions. We showed that FXR1 clearly colocalizes in cortical neurons with amyloid-specific dyes Congo-Red, Thioflavines S and T. FXR1 extracted from brain by immunoprecipitation shows yellow-green birefringence after staining with Congo red. This protein forms in brain detergent-resistant amyloid oligomers and insoluble aggregates. RNA molecules that are colocalized with FXR1 in cortical neurons are insensitive to treatment with RNase A. All these data suggest that FXR1 functions in rat brain in amyloid form. The N-terminal amyloid-forming fragment of FXR1 is highly conserved across mammals. We assume that the FXR1 protein may be presented in amyloid form in brain of different species of mammals, including humans.
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