The paper describes a wide-range practical application of the potentiometric multisensor system (MS) (1) for integral safety evaluation of a variety of natural waters at multiple locations, under various climatic conditions and anthropogenic stress and (2) for close to real consistency evaluation of waste water purification processes at urban water treatment plants. In total, 25 natural surface water samples were collected around St. Petersburg (Russia), analyzed as is, and after ultrasonic treatment. Toxicity of the samples was evaluated using bioassay and MS. Relative errors of toxicity assessment with MS in these samples were below 20%. The system was also applied for fast determination of integral water quality using chemical oxygen demand (COD) values in 20 samples of water from river and ponds in Kolkata (India) and performed with an acceptable precision of 20% to 22% in this task. Furthermore, the MS was applied for fast simultaneous evaluation of COD, biochemical oxygen demand, inorganic phosphorous, ammonia, and nitrate nitrogen at two waste water treatment plants (over 320 samples). Reasonable precision (within 25%) of such analysis is acceptable for rapid water safety evaluation and enables fast control of the purification process. MS proved to be a practicable analytical instrument for various real-world tasks related to water safety monitoring.
Scopus subject areas
- Analytical Chemistry
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering