Possible cognitive mechanisms of identifying visually presented sound symbolic words

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Abstract

Background. Sound symbolism (SS) refers to the direct association between the sound and the meaning of a word. The results of cross-linguistic research prove that SS is universal for different languages and cultures. Thirty percent of all natural languages consist of SS words. But despite the large number of psychosemantic studies which have been conducted, the cognitive mechanisms of the perception of SS words still remain unclear. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine how Russian-speaking subjects perceive visually presented English and Russian words, as measured by the Lexical decision method. Design. The study sample consisted of 148 subjects of ages ranging from 13 to 78. The study was conducted in two stages. During the first stage, the perception of visually-presented English SS words by Russian learners of English, with three different levels of language proficiency, was studied. During the second stage, the perception of visually-presented Russian SS words by Russian native speakers from three different age groups was studied. The stimuli material was selected according to the following criteria: 1) ach word was monosyllabic; 2) Each SS word corresponded to a single arbitrary (non-SS) word of the same pronunciation type; and 3) Each word corresponded to a non-word, formed from it by replacing letters according to the phonotactic rules of English and Russian. At each stage of the study, each subject was given 80 stimuli consisting of 20 SS words, 20 non-SS words, and 40 non-words. An analysis of contingency tables (Chi-square test), comparison of averages (Student's t-test), and analyses of variances (ANOVA) were applied to the data. Results. The visually-presented SS words were identified more slowly and with more errors than the non-SS words, regardless of the language (Russian or English), the subjects' age, and their English language proficiency. Conclusions. The observed delay effect in the cognitive processing of visually- presented SS words is due to the cognitive complexity of the task, which leads to the activation of cross-modal interaction system, besides, interfering systems of information processing are assumed to exist.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)188-200
Number of pages13
JournalPsychology in Russia: State of the Art
Volume12
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 15 Mar 2019

Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology (miscellaneous)
  • Language and Linguistics

Cite this

@article{15d36021e923470f8b629194fdaa6b79,
title = "Possible cognitive mechanisms of identifying visually presented sound symbolic words",
abstract = "Background. Sound symbolism (SS) refers to the direct association between the sound and the meaning of a word. The results of cross-linguistic research prove that SS is universal for different languages and cultures. Thirty percent of all natural languages consist of SS words. But despite the large number of psychosemantic studies which have been conducted, the cognitive mechanisms of the perception of SS words still remain unclear. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine how Russian-speaking subjects perceive visually presented English and Russian words, as measured by the Lexical decision method. Design. The study sample consisted of 148 subjects of ages ranging from 13 to 78. The study was conducted in two stages. During the first stage, the perception of visually-presented English SS words by Russian learners of English, with three different levels of language proficiency, was studied. During the second stage, the perception of visually-presented Russian SS words by Russian native speakers from three different age groups was studied. The stimuli material was selected according to the following criteria: 1) ach word was monosyllabic; 2) Each SS word corresponded to a single arbitrary (non-SS) word of the same pronunciation type; and 3) Each word corresponded to a non-word, formed from it by replacing letters according to the phonotactic rules of English and Russian. At each stage of the study, each subject was given 80 stimuli consisting of 20 SS words, 20 non-SS words, and 40 non-words. An analysis of contingency tables (Chi-square test), comparison of averages (Student's t-test), and analyses of variances (ANOVA) were applied to the data. Results. The visually-presented SS words were identified more slowly and with more errors than the non-SS words, regardless of the language (Russian or English), the subjects' age, and their English language proficiency. Conclusions. The observed delay effect in the cognitive processing of visually- presented SS words is due to the cognitive complexity of the task, which leads to the activation of cross-modal interaction system, besides, interfering systems of information processing are assumed to exist.",
keywords = "phonosemantics, PSYCHOSEMANTICS, sound-iconicity;, sound symbolism;, lexical decision task",
author = "Tkacheva, {Liubov O.} and Sedelkina, {Yulia G.} and Nasledov, {Andrey D.}",
note = "Akita, K. (2009) A grammar of sound-symbolic words in Japanese: theoretical approaches to iconic and lexical properties of Japanese mimetics. PhD dissertation, Kobe University. [Online]. Retrieved on 12 September 2018 from: http://www.lib.kobe-u.ac.jp/repository/thesis/d1/D1004724.pdf Ameka, F.K. (2001) Ideophones and the nature of the adjective word class in Ewe. Ideophones, ed. by F.K. Erhard Voeltz and Christa Kilian-Hatz, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 25-48. Armoskaite, S. & Koskinen, P. (2017) Structuring sensory imagery: Ideophones across languages and cultures/La structuration de l'imagerie sensorielle: les id{\'e}ophones dans diverses langues et cultures. Canadian Journal of Linguistics/Revue canadienne de linguistique, 62, 2, 149-153. https://doi.org/10.1017/cnj.2017.12 Asano, M., et al. (2015) Sound symbolism scaffolds language development in preverbal infants. Cortex: Research report, 63, 196-205. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2014.08.025 Bankieris, K. & Simner, J. (2015) What is the link between synaesthesia and sound symbolism? Cognition, 136, 186-195. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2014.11.013 Blasi, et al. (2016). Sound-meaning association biases evidenced across thousands of languages. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 113, 10818-10823. doi:10.1073/pnas.1605782113 Clark, H.H. (2016) Depicting as a method of communication. Psychological Review, 123, 3, 324-347. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/rev0000026 Cytowic, R.E. & Eagleman, D. (2009) Wednesday is indigo blue: discovering the brain of synesthesia. Cambridge, UK: The MIT Press, 121-123, 309. Dingemanse, M. (2012) Advances in the Cross-Linguistic Study of Ideophones. Language and Linguistics Compass, 6, 10, 654-672. https://doi.org/10.1002/lnc3.361 Dingemanse, M. (2018) Redrawing the margins of language: Lessons from research on ideophones. Glossa: a journal of general linguistics, 3, 1, 4, 1-30. https://doi.org/10.5334/gjgl.444 Drellishak, S. (2006) Statistical Techniques for Detecting and Validating Phonesthemes. University of Washington. Seattle, WA, 50. Fasmer, М. (1986) Etimologichesky slovar russkogo yazyka. [Etymological dictionary of the Russian language.] Ed. by Larina, B.A., translated by O.N. Trubacheva. Russia, Moscow: Progress, I–I. Imai, M. et al. (2008) Sound symbolism facilitates early verb learning. Cognition, 109, 1, 54-65. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2008.07.015 Imai, M. & Kita, S. (2014) The sound symbolism bootstrapping hypothesis for language acquisition and language evolution. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B 369: 20130298. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2013.0298 Kazuko, S. & Shigeto, K. (2010) A cross-linguistic study of sound symbolism: the images of size. Berkeley Linguistics Society, 2010, 396-410. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/bls.v36i1.3926 Kovic V., Plunkett K., & Westermann, G. (2010) The shape of words in the brain. Cognition, 114, 1, 19-28. DOI: 10.1016/j.cognition.2009.08.016 Laing, C.E. (2014) A phonological analysis of onomatopoeia in early word production. First Language, 34, 5, 387-405. https://doi.org/10.1177/0142723714550110 Lockwood, G., Hagoort, P., & Dingemanse, M. (2016) How iconicity helps people learn new words: neural correlates and individual differences in sound-symbolic bootstrapping. Collabra. 2016. 2, 1, 7, 1-15. http://doi.org/10.1525/collabra.42 Magnus, M.A. Dictionary of English Sound. URL: http://www.trismegistos.com (Retrieved on: 21. 07. 2017). Meyer, D.E. & Schvaneveldt, R.W. (1971) Facilitation in recognizing pairs of words: Evidence of a dependence between retrieval operations. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 90, 227-234. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0031564 Miroshnikov, S.A. (2010) Ekspertnaya systema Longitud. Experimentalno-diagnostichesky complex (EDC). [Expert system longitudinal research data. Experimental-diagnostic complex (EDC).] Russia, Sankt-Petersburg: LEMA, 196. Miyazaki, M., et al. (2013) The facilitatory role of sound symbolism in infant word learning. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, 35, 3080-3085. Retrieved from https://escholarship.org/uc/item/5zt40388. Molholm, S. et al. (2002) Multisensory auditory-visual interactions during early sensory processing in humans: a high-density electrical mapping study. Brain Research: Cognitive Brain Research, 14, 1, 115–128. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0926-6410(02)00066-6 Nasledov, A.D. (2013) IBM SPSS 20 i AMOS: professionalniy statisticheskiy analyz dannih. [IBM SPSS 20 and AMOS: professional statistical data analysis.]. Russia, Sankt-Petersburg: Piter, 416. Osaka, N., et al. (2003) An emotion-based facial expression word activates the laughter module in the human brain: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Neuroscience Letters, 340(2):127-130. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3940(03)00093-4 Osaka, N. (2006) Human anterior cingulate cortex and affective pain induced by mimic words: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Psychoanalysis and neuroscience, 257-268. https://doi.org/10.1007/88-470-0550-7_11 Perniss, P. & Vigliocco, G. (2014) The bridge of iconicity: from a world of experience to the experience of language. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 369(1651). DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2013.0300 PET Vocabulary List (2011). UCLES, URL: http://www.cambridgeenglish.org/images/84669-pet-vocabulary-list.pdf (Retrieved on 06.08.2017) Pexman, P.M. (2012). Meaning-based influences on visual word recognition. In J.S. Adelman (ed.), Current issues in the psychology of language. Visual word recognition: Meaning and context, individuals and development. New York, NY, US: Psychology Press, 24-43. Pleyer, M., et al. (2017) Interaction and iconicity in the evolution of language: Introduction to the special issue. Interaction Studies, 18, 3, 305-315. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1075/is.18.3.01ple Ramachandran, V.S. & Edward, M.H. (2001) Synaesthesia: a window into perception, thought and language. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 8, 12, 3-34. http://cbc.ucsd.edu/pdf/Synaesthesia{\%}20-{\%}20JCS.pdf Ratcliff, R., Gomez, P., & McKoon, G.A. (2004) Diffusion Model Account of the Lexical Decision Task. Psychological Review 111, 1, 159-182. doi:10.1037/0033-295x.111.1.159 Revill, K.P., et al. (2014) Cross-linguistic sound symbolism and crossmodal correspondence: Evidence from fMRI and DTI. Brain and Language, 128, 1, 18-24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandl.2013.11.002 Rizzolatti, G. & Craighero, L. (2005) The mirror-neuron system. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 27, 1, 169-192. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.neuro.27.070203.144230 Sedelkina, Yu.G. (2016) Zapominaniye i usvoyeniye angliyskikh frazeologizmov v zabisimosti ot nalichiya v nikh fonosemanticheskogo komponenta. [Memorizing and learning of English idioms depending on the presence of phonosemantic element.] Nauka i obrazovaniye segodnya, 10, 11, 65-66. Shimojo, S. & Shams, L. (2001) Sensory modalities are not separate modalities: plasticity and interactions. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 11, 505-509. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0959-4388(00)00241-5 Shlyachova, S.S. (2004) Drebezgi yazika: Slovar russkih phonosemanticheskih anomaliy. [Language clash: Russian Dictionary phonosematic anomalies.] Russia, Perm: publishing house of Perm state pedagogical University, 226, 59-60. Sidhu, D.M. & Pexman, P.M. (2017) Five mechanisms of sound symbolic association. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 1-25. DOI: 10.3758/s13423-017-1361-1 Svantesson, J.O. (2017) Sound symbolism: The role of word sound in meaning. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, 8:e1441, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1002/wcs.1441 Tkacheva, L.O., Gorbunov, I.A., & Nasledov, A.D. (2015) Reorganization of system brain activity while understanding visually presented texts with the increasing completeness of information. Human Physiology, 41, 1, 11-21. https://doi.org/10.1134/S0362119714060127 Van der Auwera, J. & Ceyhan, T. (2005) Semantic maps. Encyclopedia of language & linguistics, ed. by Brown, Keith, Oxford: Elsevier, 900, 131-134. von Stein, A., et al. (1999) Synchronization between temporal and parietal cortex during multimodal object processing in man. Cereb. Cortex, 9:137-150. doi:10.1093/cercor/9.2.137 Voronin, S.V. (1969) Angliyskie onomatopy (typi i stroenie). [English onomatopes (types and structure).] PhD dissertation. Soviet Union, Leningrad: Leningrad State University, 578. Voronin, S.V. (2009) Osnovi phonosemantiki. [The basics of phonosemantics.] Russia, Moscow: Lenand, 248. Walker, P., et al. (2010) Preverbal Infants’ Sensitivity to Synaesthetic Cross-Modality Correspondences. Psychological Science, 21(1), 21-25. DOI: 10.1177/0956797609354734 Westbury, C. (2018) Weighing up the evidence for sound symbolism: Distributional properties predict cue strength. Journal of Memory and Language, 99:122-150. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2017.09.006",
year = "2019",
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day = "15",
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language = "English",
volume = "12",
pages = "188--200",
journal = "Psychology in Russia: State of the Art",
issn = "2074-6857",
publisher = "Издательство Московского университета",
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}

Possible cognitive mechanisms of identifying visually presented sound symbolic words. / Tkacheva, Liubov O.; Sedelkina, Yulia G.; Nasledov, Andrey D.

In: Psychology in Russia: State of the Art, Vol. 12, No. 1, 15.03.2019, p. 188-200.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Possible cognitive mechanisms of identifying visually presented sound symbolic words

AU - Tkacheva, Liubov O.

AU - Sedelkina, Yulia G.

AU - Nasledov, Andrey D.

N1 - Akita, K. (2009) A grammar of sound-symbolic words in Japanese: theoretical approaches to iconic and lexical properties of Japanese mimetics. PhD dissertation, Kobe University. [Online]. Retrieved on 12 September 2018 from: http://www.lib.kobe-u.ac.jp/repository/thesis/d1/D1004724.pdf Ameka, F.K. (2001) Ideophones and the nature of the adjective word class in Ewe. Ideophones, ed. by F.K. Erhard Voeltz and Christa Kilian-Hatz, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 25-48. Armoskaite, S. & Koskinen, P. (2017) Structuring sensory imagery: Ideophones across languages and cultures/La structuration de l'imagerie sensorielle: les idéophones dans diverses langues et cultures. Canadian Journal of Linguistics/Revue canadienne de linguistique, 62, 2, 149-153. https://doi.org/10.1017/cnj.2017.12 Asano, M., et al. (2015) Sound symbolism scaffolds language development in preverbal infants. Cortex: Research report, 63, 196-205. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2014.08.025 Bankieris, K. & Simner, J. (2015) What is the link between synaesthesia and sound symbolism? Cognition, 136, 186-195. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2014.11.013 Blasi, et al. (2016). Sound-meaning association biases evidenced across thousands of languages. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 113, 10818-10823. doi:10.1073/pnas.1605782113 Clark, H.H. (2016) Depicting as a method of communication. Psychological Review, 123, 3, 324-347. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/rev0000026 Cytowic, R.E. & Eagleman, D. (2009) Wednesday is indigo blue: discovering the brain of synesthesia. Cambridge, UK: The MIT Press, 121-123, 309. Dingemanse, M. (2012) Advances in the Cross-Linguistic Study of Ideophones. Language and Linguistics Compass, 6, 10, 654-672. https://doi.org/10.1002/lnc3.361 Dingemanse, M. (2018) Redrawing the margins of language: Lessons from research on ideophones. Glossa: a journal of general linguistics, 3, 1, 4, 1-30. https://doi.org/10.5334/gjgl.444 Drellishak, S. (2006) Statistical Techniques for Detecting and Validating Phonesthemes. University of Washington. Seattle, WA, 50. Fasmer, М. (1986) Etimologichesky slovar russkogo yazyka. [Etymological dictionary of the Russian language.] Ed. by Larina, B.A., translated by O.N. Trubacheva. Russia, Moscow: Progress, I–I. Imai, M. et al. (2008) Sound symbolism facilitates early verb learning. Cognition, 109, 1, 54-65. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2008.07.015 Imai, M. & Kita, S. (2014) The sound symbolism bootstrapping hypothesis for language acquisition and language evolution. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B 369: 20130298. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2013.0298 Kazuko, S. & Shigeto, K. (2010) A cross-linguistic study of sound symbolism: the images of size. Berkeley Linguistics Society, 2010, 396-410. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/bls.v36i1.3926 Kovic V., Plunkett K., & Westermann, G. (2010) The shape of words in the brain. Cognition, 114, 1, 19-28. DOI: 10.1016/j.cognition.2009.08.016 Laing, C.E. (2014) A phonological analysis of onomatopoeia in early word production. First Language, 34, 5, 387-405. https://doi.org/10.1177/0142723714550110 Lockwood, G., Hagoort, P., & Dingemanse, M. (2016) How iconicity helps people learn new words: neural correlates and individual differences in sound-symbolic bootstrapping. Collabra. 2016. 2, 1, 7, 1-15. http://doi.org/10.1525/collabra.42 Magnus, M.A. Dictionary of English Sound. URL: http://www.trismegistos.com (Retrieved on: 21. 07. 2017). Meyer, D.E. & Schvaneveldt, R.W. (1971) Facilitation in recognizing pairs of words: Evidence of a dependence between retrieval operations. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 90, 227-234. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0031564 Miroshnikov, S.A. (2010) Ekspertnaya systema Longitud. Experimentalno-diagnostichesky complex (EDC). [Expert system longitudinal research data. Experimental-diagnostic complex (EDC).] Russia, Sankt-Petersburg: LEMA, 196. Miyazaki, M., et al. (2013) The facilitatory role of sound symbolism in infant word learning. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, 35, 3080-3085. Retrieved from https://escholarship.org/uc/item/5zt40388. Molholm, S. et al. (2002) Multisensory auditory-visual interactions during early sensory processing in humans: a high-density electrical mapping study. Brain Research: Cognitive Brain Research, 14, 1, 115–128. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0926-6410(02)00066-6 Nasledov, A.D. (2013) IBM SPSS 20 i AMOS: professionalniy statisticheskiy analyz dannih. [IBM SPSS 20 and AMOS: professional statistical data analysis.]. Russia, Sankt-Petersburg: Piter, 416. Osaka, N., et al. (2003) An emotion-based facial expression word activates the laughter module in the human brain: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Neuroscience Letters, 340(2):127-130. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3940(03)00093-4 Osaka, N. (2006) Human anterior cingulate cortex and affective pain induced by mimic words: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Psychoanalysis and neuroscience, 257-268. https://doi.org/10.1007/88-470-0550-7_11 Perniss, P. & Vigliocco, G. (2014) The bridge of iconicity: from a world of experience to the experience of language. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 369(1651). DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2013.0300 PET Vocabulary List (2011). UCLES, URL: http://www.cambridgeenglish.org/images/84669-pet-vocabulary-list.pdf (Retrieved on 06.08.2017) Pexman, P.M. (2012). Meaning-based influences on visual word recognition. In J.S. Adelman (ed.), Current issues in the psychology of language. Visual word recognition: Meaning and context, individuals and development. New York, NY, US: Psychology Press, 24-43. Pleyer, M., et al. (2017) Interaction and iconicity in the evolution of language: Introduction to the special issue. Interaction Studies, 18, 3, 305-315. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1075/is.18.3.01ple Ramachandran, V.S. & Edward, M.H. (2001) Synaesthesia: a window into perception, thought and language. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 8, 12, 3-34. http://cbc.ucsd.edu/pdf/Synaesthesia%20-%20JCS.pdf Ratcliff, R., Gomez, P., & McKoon, G.A. (2004) Diffusion Model Account of the Lexical Decision Task. Psychological Review 111, 1, 159-182. doi:10.1037/0033-295x.111.1.159 Revill, K.P., et al. (2014) Cross-linguistic sound symbolism and crossmodal correspondence: Evidence from fMRI and DTI. Brain and Language, 128, 1, 18-24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandl.2013.11.002 Rizzolatti, G. & Craighero, L. (2005) The mirror-neuron system. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 27, 1, 169-192. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.neuro.27.070203.144230 Sedelkina, Yu.G. (2016) Zapominaniye i usvoyeniye angliyskikh frazeologizmov v zabisimosti ot nalichiya v nikh fonosemanticheskogo komponenta. [Memorizing and learning of English idioms depending on the presence of phonosemantic element.] Nauka i obrazovaniye segodnya, 10, 11, 65-66. Shimojo, S. & Shams, L. (2001) Sensory modalities are not separate modalities: plasticity and interactions. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 11, 505-509. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0959-4388(00)00241-5 Shlyachova, S.S. (2004) Drebezgi yazika: Slovar russkih phonosemanticheskih anomaliy. [Language clash: Russian Dictionary phonosematic anomalies.] Russia, Perm: publishing house of Perm state pedagogical University, 226, 59-60. Sidhu, D.M. & Pexman, P.M. (2017) Five mechanisms of sound symbolic association. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 1-25. DOI: 10.3758/s13423-017-1361-1 Svantesson, J.O. (2017) Sound symbolism: The role of word sound in meaning. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, 8:e1441, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1002/wcs.1441 Tkacheva, L.O., Gorbunov, I.A., & Nasledov, A.D. (2015) Reorganization of system brain activity while understanding visually presented texts with the increasing completeness of information. Human Physiology, 41, 1, 11-21. https://doi.org/10.1134/S0362119714060127 Van der Auwera, J. & Ceyhan, T. (2005) Semantic maps. Encyclopedia of language & linguistics, ed. by Brown, Keith, Oxford: Elsevier, 900, 131-134. von Stein, A., et al. (1999) Synchronization between temporal and parietal cortex during multimodal object processing in man. Cereb. Cortex, 9:137-150. doi:10.1093/cercor/9.2.137 Voronin, S.V. (1969) Angliyskie onomatopy (typi i stroenie). [English onomatopes (types and structure).] PhD dissertation. Soviet Union, Leningrad: Leningrad State University, 578. Voronin, S.V. (2009) Osnovi phonosemantiki. [The basics of phonosemantics.] Russia, Moscow: Lenand, 248. Walker, P., et al. (2010) Preverbal Infants’ Sensitivity to Synaesthetic Cross-Modality Correspondences. Psychological Science, 21(1), 21-25. DOI: 10.1177/0956797609354734 Westbury, C. (2018) Weighing up the evidence for sound symbolism: Distributional properties predict cue strength. Journal of Memory and Language, 99:122-150. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2017.09.006

PY - 2019/3/15

Y1 - 2019/3/15

N2 - Background. Sound symbolism (SS) refers to the direct association between the sound and the meaning of a word. The results of cross-linguistic research prove that SS is universal for different languages and cultures. Thirty percent of all natural languages consist of SS words. But despite the large number of psychosemantic studies which have been conducted, the cognitive mechanisms of the perception of SS words still remain unclear. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine how Russian-speaking subjects perceive visually presented English and Russian words, as measured by the Lexical decision method. Design. The study sample consisted of 148 subjects of ages ranging from 13 to 78. The study was conducted in two stages. During the first stage, the perception of visually-presented English SS words by Russian learners of English, with three different levels of language proficiency, was studied. During the second stage, the perception of visually-presented Russian SS words by Russian native speakers from three different age groups was studied. The stimuli material was selected according to the following criteria: 1) ach word was monosyllabic; 2) Each SS word corresponded to a single arbitrary (non-SS) word of the same pronunciation type; and 3) Each word corresponded to a non-word, formed from it by replacing letters according to the phonotactic rules of English and Russian. At each stage of the study, each subject was given 80 stimuli consisting of 20 SS words, 20 non-SS words, and 40 non-words. An analysis of contingency tables (Chi-square test), comparison of averages (Student's t-test), and analyses of variances (ANOVA) were applied to the data. Results. The visually-presented SS words were identified more slowly and with more errors than the non-SS words, regardless of the language (Russian or English), the subjects' age, and their English language proficiency. Conclusions. The observed delay effect in the cognitive processing of visually- presented SS words is due to the cognitive complexity of the task, which leads to the activation of cross-modal interaction system, besides, interfering systems of information processing are assumed to exist.

AB - Background. Sound symbolism (SS) refers to the direct association between the sound and the meaning of a word. The results of cross-linguistic research prove that SS is universal for different languages and cultures. Thirty percent of all natural languages consist of SS words. But despite the large number of psychosemantic studies which have been conducted, the cognitive mechanisms of the perception of SS words still remain unclear. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine how Russian-speaking subjects perceive visually presented English and Russian words, as measured by the Lexical decision method. Design. The study sample consisted of 148 subjects of ages ranging from 13 to 78. The study was conducted in two stages. During the first stage, the perception of visually-presented English SS words by Russian learners of English, with three different levels of language proficiency, was studied. During the second stage, the perception of visually-presented Russian SS words by Russian native speakers from three different age groups was studied. The stimuli material was selected according to the following criteria: 1) ach word was monosyllabic; 2) Each SS word corresponded to a single arbitrary (non-SS) word of the same pronunciation type; and 3) Each word corresponded to a non-word, formed from it by replacing letters according to the phonotactic rules of English and Russian. At each stage of the study, each subject was given 80 stimuli consisting of 20 SS words, 20 non-SS words, and 40 non-words. An analysis of contingency tables (Chi-square test), comparison of averages (Student's t-test), and analyses of variances (ANOVA) were applied to the data. Results. The visually-presented SS words were identified more slowly and with more errors than the non-SS words, regardless of the language (Russian or English), the subjects' age, and their English language proficiency. Conclusions. The observed delay effect in the cognitive processing of visually- presented SS words is due to the cognitive complexity of the task, which leads to the activation of cross-modal interaction system, besides, interfering systems of information processing are assumed to exist.

KW - phonosemantics

KW - PSYCHOSEMANTICS

KW - sound-iconicity;

KW - sound symbolism;

KW - lexical decision task

U2 - 10.11621/pir.2019.0114

DO - 10.11621/pir.2019.0114

M3 - Article

VL - 12

SP - 188

EP - 200

JO - Psychology in Russia: State of the Art

JF - Psychology in Russia: State of the Art

SN - 2074-6857

IS - 1

ER -