Soil microbial communities are complex multicomponent systems that form under the influence of a wide range of factors, among them — soil type, plant species, climate, agricultural technology — in general, determining the physical and chemical characteristics of the environment. The plant, according to many researchers, is the main factor determining the structure of the soil microbial community, due to the extensive number of compounds released into the soil. There is still a discussion about the specific nature of the action of various plants on soil microbiome, which is very important both for understanding the mechanism of interaction of microorganisms and plants, and for building optimal crop rotations, as well as organizing measures to protect agricultural crops from phytopathogenic microorganisms and pests. Winter rye is one of the few crops that can grow continuously for decades. It has a powerful root system, comparable to the biomass of the above-ground part of plants. The root excretions of winter rye reach 21 % of the synthesized plant mass. This paper presents the results of research aimed at studying the phylotypical structure and diversity of prokaryotic microorganisms in rye crops grown in permanent culture and six-field crop rotation for almost 100 years, in the long-term multifactorial field experiment of the Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy. The aim of our work was to study the influence of various agricultural technicians such as crop rotation and liming, under the conditions of a long field experiment on the phylogenetic structure of prokaryotic micro-organisms in rye crops. The results of the high-throughput DNA sequencing of the soil microbiome and the subsequent analysis of the phylogenetic structure and diversity of the prokaryotic microorganisms of the sod-podzolic soil under the conditions of perennial rye culture showed that the plant is one of the key factors in the formation of the prokaryotic community. Regardless of the agrotechnical methods under the cover of winter rye, the same core structure of prokaryotes, including a small number of types of proteobacteria and actinobacteria, develops in the earing phase. The dominant position among them is occupied by the bacteria of the Rhizobiaceae family, which in this case is to some extent related to the history of the experimental field. Apparently, the bacteria of this family and, above all, the nodule bacteria, find favorable conditions for their development in the rye rhizosphere. It is possible that a kind of associative symbiosis is formed between them, which was observed by some authors with other cereal crops. In this connection, studies of the viability of Rhizobiaceae in winter rye crops, and their evolution to associative endosymbiotic relationships with rye in the course of a long coexistence are of undoubted interest. The effect of liming on the genetic structure of the prokaryote community of acidic soils may be different. At the same time, apparently, the specific type of plants, as well as the history of the field (crop rotation, permanent culture, fertilizer system, etc.) are of significant importance.
|Number of pages||10|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Jan 2018|
Scopus subject areas
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)