## Abstract

Conjunctive grammars over an alphabet Σ={a} are studied, with the focus on the special case with a unique nonterminal symbol. Such a grammar is equivalent to an equation X=φ{symbol}(X) over sets of natural numbers, using union, intersection and addition. It is shown that every grammar with multiple nonterminals can be encoded into a grammar with a single nonterminal, with a slight modification of the language. Based on this construction, the compressed membership problem for one-nonterminal conjunctive grammars over {a} is proved to be EXPTIME-complete; the same problem for the context-free grammars is decidable in NLOGSPACE, but becomes NP-complete if the grammar is compressed as well. The equivalence problem for these grammars is shown to be co-r. e.-complete, both finiteness and co-finiteness are r. e.-complete, while equivalence to a fixed unary language with a regular positional notation is decidable.

Original language | English |
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Pages (from-to) | 319-342 |

Number of pages | 24 |

Journal | Theory of Computing Systems |

Volume | 49 |

Issue number | 2 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - 1 Aug 2011 |

## Scopus subject areas

- Theoretical Computer Science
- Computational Theory and Mathematics