A new species of plunderfish Pogonophryne favosa sp. n. from the mesobenthal of the Cosmonauts Sea, Antarctica, has been described. The new species belongs to a group of species "mentella", differing from other species of the group in the presence of spots on the abdominal side of the body and a unique structure of mental barbel. An anatomohistological study was performed of convexitas superaxillaris-unusual skin formations first found in Artedidraconidae. Their possible function in the system of cold resistance of Antarctic Notothenioidei and possible historic dates of their appearance in the family Artedidraconidae are discussed. © 2013 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.