Modulation of efficiency of translation termination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Turning nonsense into sense

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations

Abstract

Nonsense suppression is a readthrough of premature termination codons. It typically occurs either due to the recognition of stop codons by tRNAs with mutant anticodons, or due to a decrease in the fidelity of translation termination. In the latter case, suppressors usually promote the readthrough of different types of nonsense codons and are thus called omnipotent nonsense suppressors. Omnipotent nonsense suppressors were identified in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in 1960s, and most of subsequent studies were performed in this model organism. Initially, omnipotent suppressors were localized by genetic analysis to different protein- and RNA-encoding genes, mostly the components of translational machinery. Later, nonsense suppression was found to be caused not only by genomic mutations, but also by epigenetic elements, prions. Prions are self-perpetuating protein conformations usually manifested by infectious protein aggregates. Modulation of translational accuracy by prions reflects changes in the activity of their structural proteins involved in different aspects of protein synthesis. Overall, nonsense suppression can be seen as a "phenotypic mirror" of events affecting the accuracy of the translational machine. However, the range of proteins participating in the modulation of translation termination fidelity is not fully elucidated. Recently, the list has been expanded significantly by findings that revealed a number of weak genetic and epigenetic nonsense suppressors, the effect of which can be detected only in specific genetic backgrounds. This review summarizes the data on the nonsense suppressors decreasing the fidelity of translation termination in S. cerevisiae, and discusses the functional significance of the modulation of translational accuracy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)247-260
Number of pages14
JournalPrion
Volume8
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 2014

Keywords

  • prion
  • amyloid
  • yeast
  • nonsense suppression
  • translation
  • SUP35
  • SUP45
  • ribosome
  • translation termination
  • YEAST RIBOSOMAL-PROTEIN
  • MESSENGER-RNA TURNOVER
  • TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATOR SFP1
  • PRION-LIKE DETERMINANT
  • CHAIN RELEASE FACTOR
  • DE-NOVO APPEARANCE
  • STOP CODON
  • OMNIPOTENT SUPPRESSORS
  • GENETIC-CODE
  • FACTOR ERF3

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