The main goal of modern microbial ecology is to determine the key factors influencing the global diversity of microorganisms. Because of their complexity, soil communities are largely underexplored in this context. We studied soil genesis (combination of various soil-forming processes, specific to a particular soil type) that is driven by microbial activity. To investigate the interrelation between soil type and microbial diversity, we analyzed six soil types that are common in Russia, the Crimea, and Kazakhstan using 16S rDNA pyrosequencing. Soils of different types varied in the taxonomic composition of microbial communities. Their core microbiomes comprised 47 taxa within the orders Solirubrobacteriales and Hyphomicrobiaceae and the Gaiellaceae family. Two species from Bradyrhizobiaceae and Solirubrobactriaceae were present in all samples, whereas most other taxa were soil-type specific. Multiple resampling analysis revealed that two random soil samples from the same soil type shared more taxa than two samples from different types. The differences in community composition were mostly affected by the variation in pH values and exchangeable potassium content. The results show that data on the soil microbiome could be used for soil identification and clarification of their taxonomic position.
Scopus subject areas
- Waste Management and Disposal
- Environmental Engineering
- Environmental Chemistry