Implicit learning in attractiveness evaluation: The role of conformity and analytical processing

Research outputpeer-review

Abstract

We address the question how people's opinion and features of information interact in the process of indirect social influence. Implicit learning was considered as a mechanism for conformity in social perception. We carried out 2 experiments using a hidden covariation detection paradigm. In a learning phase, participants memorized a set of female photographs presented together with their attractiveness ratings. The ratings correlated with the hairstyle of the photographed women. The participants who did not consciously detect this correlation demonstrated a systematic bias toward the correlation when evaluating the new stimulus persons. Information about the source of the ratings in the learning phase (other people's opinions or nonsocial sources) did not modulate learning. Learning was not observed when participants critically evaluated the ratings during the memorization phase. The study shows that (a) conformity may be based not only on reinforcement learning mechanism (as was previously suggested) but also on unsupervised implicit learning; (b) implicit learning occurs automatically irrespective of the context (social or not); and (c) a critical attitude toward learned material may prevent implicit learning from being manifested in a test phase. We conclude that indirect social influence may be affected by people's opinion toward the provided information. The study contributes to both implicit learning and social perception research.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1505-1516
JournalJournal of Experimental Psychology: General
Volume148
Issue number9
Early online date14 Jun 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2019

Cite this

@article{7a4e988dab6d4cf5a94bbe83ddeded84,
title = "Implicit learning in attractiveness evaluation: The role of conformity and analytical processing",
abstract = "We address the question how people's opinion and features of information interact in the process of indirect social influence. Implicit learning was considered as a mechanism for conformity in social perception. We carried out 2 experiments using a hidden covariation detection paradigm. In a learning phase, participants memorized a set of female photographs presented together with their attractiveness ratings. The ratings correlated with the hairstyle of the photographed women. The participants who did not consciously detect this correlation demonstrated a systematic bias toward the correlation when evaluating the new stimulus persons. Information about the source of the ratings in the learning phase (other people's opinions or nonsocial sources) did not modulate learning. Learning was not observed when participants critically evaluated the ratings during the memorization phase. The study shows that (a) conformity may be based not only on reinforcement learning mechanism (as was previously suggested) but also on unsupervised implicit learning; (b) implicit learning occurs automatically irrespective of the context (social or not); and (c) a critical attitude toward learned material may prevent implicit learning from being manifested in a test phase. We conclude that indirect social influence may be affected by people's opinion toward the provided information. The study contributes to both implicit learning and social perception research.",
keywords = "implicit learning, face perception, facial attractiveness, conformity, decision strategy, HIDDEN COVARIATION DETECTION, SELF-PERPETUATING DEVELOPMENT, SOCIAL-INFLUENCE, FACES, PERFORMANCE, PERCEPTION, KNOWLEDGE, EXPOSURE, EXPLICIT, TASK",
author = "Ivanchei, {Ivan I.} and Nadezhda Moroshkina and Roman Tikhonov and Irina Ovchinnikova",
year = "2019",
month = "9",
doi = "10.1037/xge0000633",
language = "Английский",
volume = "148",
pages = "1505--1516",
journal = "Journal of Experimental Psychology: General",
issn = "0096-3445",
publisher = "American Psychological Association",
number = "9",

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Implicit learning in attractiveness evaluation: The role of conformity and analytical processing

AU - Ivanchei, Ivan I.

AU - Moroshkina, Nadezhda

AU - Tikhonov, Roman

AU - Ovchinnikova, Irina

PY - 2019/9

Y1 - 2019/9

N2 - We address the question how people's opinion and features of information interact in the process of indirect social influence. Implicit learning was considered as a mechanism for conformity in social perception. We carried out 2 experiments using a hidden covariation detection paradigm. In a learning phase, participants memorized a set of female photographs presented together with their attractiveness ratings. The ratings correlated with the hairstyle of the photographed women. The participants who did not consciously detect this correlation demonstrated a systematic bias toward the correlation when evaluating the new stimulus persons. Information about the source of the ratings in the learning phase (other people's opinions or nonsocial sources) did not modulate learning. Learning was not observed when participants critically evaluated the ratings during the memorization phase. The study shows that (a) conformity may be based not only on reinforcement learning mechanism (as was previously suggested) but also on unsupervised implicit learning; (b) implicit learning occurs automatically irrespective of the context (social or not); and (c) a critical attitude toward learned material may prevent implicit learning from being manifested in a test phase. We conclude that indirect social influence may be affected by people's opinion toward the provided information. The study contributes to both implicit learning and social perception research.

AB - We address the question how people's opinion and features of information interact in the process of indirect social influence. Implicit learning was considered as a mechanism for conformity in social perception. We carried out 2 experiments using a hidden covariation detection paradigm. In a learning phase, participants memorized a set of female photographs presented together with their attractiveness ratings. The ratings correlated with the hairstyle of the photographed women. The participants who did not consciously detect this correlation demonstrated a systematic bias toward the correlation when evaluating the new stimulus persons. Information about the source of the ratings in the learning phase (other people's opinions or nonsocial sources) did not modulate learning. Learning was not observed when participants critically evaluated the ratings during the memorization phase. The study shows that (a) conformity may be based not only on reinforcement learning mechanism (as was previously suggested) but also on unsupervised implicit learning; (b) implicit learning occurs automatically irrespective of the context (social or not); and (c) a critical attitude toward learned material may prevent implicit learning from being manifested in a test phase. We conclude that indirect social influence may be affected by people's opinion toward the provided information. The study contributes to both implicit learning and social perception research.

KW - implicit learning

KW - face perception

KW - facial attractiveness

KW - conformity

KW - decision strategy

KW - HIDDEN COVARIATION DETECTION

KW - SELF-PERPETUATING DEVELOPMENT

KW - SOCIAL-INFLUENCE

KW - FACES

KW - PERFORMANCE

KW - PERCEPTION

KW - KNOWLEDGE

KW - EXPOSURE

KW - EXPLICIT

KW - TASK

UR - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31233319

U2 - 10.1037/xge0000633

DO - 10.1037/xge0000633

M3 - статья

VL - 148

SP - 1505

EP - 1516

JO - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General

JF - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General

SN - 0096-3445

IS - 9

ER -