Hydrocerussite-related minerals and materials

structural principles, chemical variations and infrared spectroscopy

Oleg Siidra, Diana Nekrasova, Wulf Depmeier, Nikita Chukanov, Anatoly Zaitsev, Rick Turner

Research outputpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

White lead or basic lead carbonate, 2PbCO3·Pb(OH)2, the synthetic analogue of hydrocerussite Pb3(OH)2(CO3)2, has been known since antiquity as the most frequently used white paint. A number of different minerals and synthetic materials compositionally and structurally related to hydrocerussite have been described within the last two decades. Herein, a review is given of general structural principles, chemical variations and IR spectra of the rapidly growing family of hydrocerussite-related minerals and synthetic materials. Only structures containing a hydroxo- and/or oxo-component, i.e. which are compositionally directly related with hydrocerussite and `white lead', are reviewed in detail. An essential structural feature of all the considered phases is the presence of electroneutral [PbCO3]0 cerussite-type layers or sheets. Various interleaved sheets can be incorporated between the cerussite-type sheets. Different sheets are stacked into two-dimensional blocks separated by the stereochemically active 6s2 lone electron pairs on Pb2+ cations. Minerals and synthetic materials described herein, together with a number of still hypothetical members, constitute a family of modular structures. Hydrocerussite, abellaite and grootfonteinite can be considered to constitute a merotype family of structures. The remaining hydrocerussite-related structures discussed are built on similar principles, but are more complex. Structural architectures of somersetite and slag phase from Lavrion, Attica, Greece, are unique for oxysalt mineral structures in general. Thus, the whole family of hydrocerussite-related phases can be denoted as a plesiotype family of modular structures. The crystal structures of hydrocerussite from Merehead quarry, Somerset, England, and of its synthetic analogue, both determined from single crystals, are reported here for the first time. The results of the infrared (IR) spectroscopy show that this method is useful for distinguishing several different minerals related to hydrocerussite and their synthetic analogues.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)182-195
Number of pages14
JournalActa Crystallographica Section B: Structural Science, Crystal Engineering and Materials
Volume74
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2018

Fingerprint

Minerals
Infrared spectroscopy
Spectrum Analysis
infrared spectroscopy
minerals
spectroscopy
Lead
analogs
antiquities
mines (excavations)
England
Quarries
Greece
slags
paints
Paint
Slags
Carbonates
carbonates
infrared spectra

Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry

Cite this

@article{95c36c83b09143f0af7f390057925c69,
title = "Hydrocerussite-related minerals and materials: structural principles, chemical variations and infrared spectroscopy",
abstract = "White lead or basic lead carbonate, 2PbCO3·Pb(OH)2, the synthetic analogue of hydrocerussite Pb3(OH)2(CO3)2, has been known since antiquity as the most frequently used white paint. A number of different minerals and synthetic materials compositionally and structurally related to hydrocerussite have been described within the last two decades. Herein, a review is given of general structural principles, chemical variations and IR spectra of the rapidly growing family of hydrocerussite-related minerals and synthetic materials. Only structures containing a hydroxo- and/or oxo-component, i.e. which are compositionally directly related with hydrocerussite and `white lead', are reviewed in detail. An essential structural feature of all the considered phases is the presence of electroneutral [PbCO3]0 cerussite-type layers or sheets. Various interleaved sheets can be incorporated between the cerussite-type sheets. Different sheets are stacked into two-dimensional blocks separated by the stereochemically active 6s2 lone electron pairs on Pb2+ cations. Minerals and synthetic materials described herein, together with a number of still hypothetical members, constitute a family of modular structures. Hydrocerussite, abellaite and grootfonteinite can be considered to constitute a merotype family of structures. The remaining hydrocerussite-related structures discussed are built on similar principles, but are more complex. Structural architectures of somersetite and slag phase from Lavrion, Attica, Greece, are unique for oxysalt mineral structures in general. Thus, the whole family of hydrocerussite-related phases can be denoted as a plesiotype family of modular structures. The crystal structures of hydrocerussite from Merehead quarry, Somerset, England, and of its synthetic analogue, both determined from single crystals, are reported here for the first time. The results of the infrared (IR) spectroscopy show that this method is useful for distinguishing several different minerals related to hydrocerussite and their synthetic analogues.",
keywords = "basic lead carbonates, hydrocerussite, infrared spectroscopy, layered structure, lone electron pair, modern white lead, modular structure, white lead",
author = "Oleg Siidra and Diana Nekrasova and Wulf Depmeier and Nikita Chukanov and Anatoly Zaitsev and Rick Turner",
year = "2018",
month = "4",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1107/S2052520618000768",
language = "English",
volume = "74",
pages = "182--195",
journal = "Acta Crystallographica Section B: Structural Science, Crystal Engineering and Materials",
issn = "2052-5192",
publisher = "International Union of Crystallography",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Hydrocerussite-related minerals and materials

T2 - structural principles, chemical variations and infrared spectroscopy

AU - Siidra, Oleg

AU - Nekrasova, Diana

AU - Depmeier, Wulf

AU - Chukanov, Nikita

AU - Zaitsev, Anatoly

AU - Turner, Rick

PY - 2018/4/1

Y1 - 2018/4/1

N2 - White lead or basic lead carbonate, 2PbCO3·Pb(OH)2, the synthetic analogue of hydrocerussite Pb3(OH)2(CO3)2, has been known since antiquity as the most frequently used white paint. A number of different minerals and synthetic materials compositionally and structurally related to hydrocerussite have been described within the last two decades. Herein, a review is given of general structural principles, chemical variations and IR spectra of the rapidly growing family of hydrocerussite-related minerals and synthetic materials. Only structures containing a hydroxo- and/or oxo-component, i.e. which are compositionally directly related with hydrocerussite and `white lead', are reviewed in detail. An essential structural feature of all the considered phases is the presence of electroneutral [PbCO3]0 cerussite-type layers or sheets. Various interleaved sheets can be incorporated between the cerussite-type sheets. Different sheets are stacked into two-dimensional blocks separated by the stereochemically active 6s2 lone electron pairs on Pb2+ cations. Minerals and synthetic materials described herein, together with a number of still hypothetical members, constitute a family of modular structures. Hydrocerussite, abellaite and grootfonteinite can be considered to constitute a merotype family of structures. The remaining hydrocerussite-related structures discussed are built on similar principles, but are more complex. Structural architectures of somersetite and slag phase from Lavrion, Attica, Greece, are unique for oxysalt mineral structures in general. Thus, the whole family of hydrocerussite-related phases can be denoted as a plesiotype family of modular structures. The crystal structures of hydrocerussite from Merehead quarry, Somerset, England, and of its synthetic analogue, both determined from single crystals, are reported here for the first time. The results of the infrared (IR) spectroscopy show that this method is useful for distinguishing several different minerals related to hydrocerussite and their synthetic analogues.

AB - White lead or basic lead carbonate, 2PbCO3·Pb(OH)2, the synthetic analogue of hydrocerussite Pb3(OH)2(CO3)2, has been known since antiquity as the most frequently used white paint. A number of different minerals and synthetic materials compositionally and structurally related to hydrocerussite have been described within the last two decades. Herein, a review is given of general structural principles, chemical variations and IR spectra of the rapidly growing family of hydrocerussite-related minerals and synthetic materials. Only structures containing a hydroxo- and/or oxo-component, i.e. which are compositionally directly related with hydrocerussite and `white lead', are reviewed in detail. An essential structural feature of all the considered phases is the presence of electroneutral [PbCO3]0 cerussite-type layers or sheets. Various interleaved sheets can be incorporated between the cerussite-type sheets. Different sheets are stacked into two-dimensional blocks separated by the stereochemically active 6s2 lone electron pairs on Pb2+ cations. Minerals and synthetic materials described herein, together with a number of still hypothetical members, constitute a family of modular structures. Hydrocerussite, abellaite and grootfonteinite can be considered to constitute a merotype family of structures. The remaining hydrocerussite-related structures discussed are built on similar principles, but are more complex. Structural architectures of somersetite and slag phase from Lavrion, Attica, Greece, are unique for oxysalt mineral structures in general. Thus, the whole family of hydrocerussite-related phases can be denoted as a plesiotype family of modular structures. The crystal structures of hydrocerussite from Merehead quarry, Somerset, England, and of its synthetic analogue, both determined from single crystals, are reported here for the first time. The results of the infrared (IR) spectroscopy show that this method is useful for distinguishing several different minerals related to hydrocerussite and their synthetic analogues.

KW - basic lead carbonates

KW - hydrocerussite

KW - infrared spectroscopy

KW - layered structure

KW - lone electron pair

KW - modern white lead

KW - modular structure

KW - white lead

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85045410687&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1107/S2052520618000768

DO - 10.1107/S2052520618000768

M3 - Article

VL - 74

SP - 182

EP - 195

JO - Acta Crystallographica Section B: Structural Science, Crystal Engineering and Materials

JF - Acta Crystallographica Section B: Structural Science, Crystal Engineering and Materials

SN - 2052-5192

IS - 2

ER -