Ferromanganese carbonate metasediments of the Sob area, Polar Urals: bedding conditions, composition, and genesis

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Abstract

The paper presents the results of study of ferromanganese carbonate rocks in the Sob area (Polar Urals), which is located between the Rai-Iz massif and the Seida–Labytnangi Railway branch. These rocks represent low-metamorphosed sedimentary rocks confined to the Devonian carbonaceous siliceous and clayey–siliceous shales. In terms of ratio of the major minerals, ferromanganese rocks can be divided into three varieties composed of the following minerals: (1) siderite, rhodochrosite, chamosite, quartz, ± kutnahorite, ± calcite, ± magnetite, ± pyrite, ± clinochlore, ± stilpnomelane; (2) spessartite, rhodochrosite, and quartz, ± hematite, ± chamosite; (3) rhodochrosite, spessartite, pyroxmanite, quartz ± tephroite, ± fridelite, ± clinochlore, ± pyrophanite, ± pyrite. In all varieties, the major concentrators of Mn and Fe are carbonates (rhodochrosite, siderite, kutnahorite, Mn-calcite) and chlorite group minerals (clinochlore, chamosite). The chemical composition of rocks is dominated by Si, Fe, Mn, carbon dioxide, and water (L.O.I.): total SiO 2 + Fe 2 O 3 tot + MnO + L.O.I. = 85.6−98.4 wt %. The content of Fe and Mn varies from 9.3 to 55.6 wt % (Fe 2 O 3 tot + MnO). The Mn/Fe ratio varies from 0.2 to 55.3. In terms of the aluminum module Al M = Al/(Al + Mn + Fe), the major portion of studied samples corresponds to metalliferous sediments. The δ 13 C carb range (–30.4 to–11.9‰ PDB) corresponds to authigenic carbonates formed with carbon dioxide released during the microbial oxidation of organic matter in sediments at the dia- and/or catagenetic stage. Ferromanganese sediments were likely deposited in relatively closed seafloor zones (basin-traps) characterized by periodic stagnation. Fe and Mn could be delivered from various sources: input by diverse hydrothermal solutions, silt waters in the course of diagenesis, river discharges, and others. The diagenetic delivery of metals seems to be most plausible. Mn was concentrated during the stagnation of bottom water in basin-traps. Interruption of stagnation promoted the precipitation of Mn. The presence of organic matter fostered a reductive pattern of postsedimentary transformations of metalliferous sediments. Fe and Mn were accumulated initially in the oxide form. During the diagenesis, manganese and iron oxides reacted with organic matter to make up carbonates. Relative to manganese carbonates, iron carbonates were formed under more reductive settings and higher concentrations of carbon dioxide in the interstitial solution. Crystallization of manganese and iron silicates began already at early stages of lithogenesis and ended during the regional metamorphism of metalliferous sediments.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)192-213
Number of pages22
JournalLithology and Mineral Resources
Volume52
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 2017

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