Facultative symbiosis of Oophila amblystomatis (Chlorophyceae) with amphibian eggs and embryos

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Literature data on facultative mutualistic (symbiotic) relationships between amphibian embryos and unicellular green algae have been considered. Such symbioses may be important for the survival and dispersal of some tailed and anuran amphibians. The green amphibian clutches had been found in North America, Europe and Japan. The algae proliferate quite intensively within the jelly egg capsules of several species from the families Ambystomatidae (Caudata), Ranidae (Anura) and Hynobiidae (Caudata). A unique symbiosis between the green alga Oophila amblystomatis and the salamander Ambystoma maculatum has been recently described. In this case a part of the symbiotic algal population from the egg capsule penetrates into embryonic tissues and cells. The intracellular algae display signs of stress and undergo a metabolic shift from oxidative metabolism to fermentation. A preliminary hypothesis about vertical transmission of the symbionts in Ambystoma has been suggested.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)103-106
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2019

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