The goal of the study is to reveal the correlation between speech peculiarities and different aspects of development of children with autism spectrum disorders. The participants in the study were 28 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) aged 4-11 years and 64 adults - listening to children's speech samples. Children with ASD were divided into two groups: ASD-1 - ASD is the leading symptom (F84, n=17); children assigned to ASD-2 (n=11) had other disorders accompanied by ASD symptomatology (F83 + F84). Recording of children's speech and behavior was carried out in the most similar situations: a dialogue with the experimenter, viewing pictures and retelling a story about them or answers to questions, book reading. The child's psychophysiological characteristics were estimated according to the method which includes determining the leading hemisphere by speech (dichotic listening test - DLT), phonemic hearing, and the profile of lateral functional asymmetry (PLFA). All tasks and the time of the study were adapted to the child's capacities. The study analyzed the level of speech formation in 4-11 year-old children with ASD, identified direct and indirect relationships between the features of early development, its psychophysiological indicators, and the speech development level at the time of the study. The ability of adults to recognize the psychoneurological state of children via their speech is determined. The results of the study support the need to increase focus on and understanding of the language strengths and weaknesses in children with ASD and an individual approach to teaching children.