This study presents a dataset on long-term multidisciplinary glaciological, hydrological, and meteorological observations and isotope sampling in a sparsely monitored alpine zone of the North Caucasus in the Djankuat research basin. The Djankuat glacier, which is the largest in the basin, was chosen as representative of the central North Caucasus during the International Hydrological Decade and is one of 30 "reference" glaciers in the world that have annual mass balance series longer than 50 years (Zemp et al., 2009). The dataset features a comprehensive set of observations from 2007 to 2017 and contains yearly <ul><li> <p idCombining double low line"d1e300">measurements of snow depth and density;</li><li> <p idCombining double low line"d1e304">measurements of dynamics of snow and ice melting;</li><li> <p idCombining double low line"d1e308">measurements of water runoff, conductivity, turbidity, temperature, <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">δ18O</span>, <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">δ</span>D at the main gauging station (844 samples in total) with an hourly or sub-daily time step depending on the parameter;</li><li> <p idCombining double low line"d1e332">data on <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">δ18O</span> and <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">δ2H</span> sampling of liquid precipitation, snow, ice, firn, and groundwater in different parts of the watershed taken regularly during melting season (485 samples in total);</li><li> <p idCombining double low line"d1e362">measurements of precipitation amount, air temperature, relative humidity, shortwave incoming and reflected radiation, longwave downward and upward radiation, atmospheric pressure, and wind speed and direction - measured at several automatic weather stations within the basin with 15 min to 1 h time steps;</li><li> <p idCombining double low line"d1e366">gradient meteorological measurements to estimate turbulent fluxes of heat and moisture, measuring three components of wind speed at a frequency of 10 Hz to estimate the impulse of turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent heat over the glacier surface by the eddy covariance method.</li></ul>
Data were collected during the ablation period (June-September). The observations were halted in winter. The dataset is available from PANGAEA (<a hrefCombining double low line"https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.894807">https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.894807</a>, Rets et al., 2018a) and will be further updated. The dataset can be useful for developing and verifying hydrological, glaciological, and meteorological models for alpine areas, to study the impact of climate change on hydrology of mountain regions using isotopic and hydrochemical approaches in hydrology. As the dataset includes the measurements of hydrometeorological and glaciological variables during the catastrophic proglacial lake outburst in the neighboring Bashkara valley in September 2017, it is a valuable contribution to study lake outbursts.
Scopus subject areas
- Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)