A new kind of magnetically-doped antiferromagnetic (AFM) topological insulators (TIs) with stoichiometry Bi 1.09 Gd 0.06 Sb 0.85 Te 3 has been studied by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), superconducting magnetometry (SQUID) and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) with analysis of its electronic structure and surface-derived magnetic properties at different temperatures. This TI is characterized by the location of the Dirac gap at the Fermi level (E F ) and a bulk AFM coupling below the Neel temperature (4–8 K). At temperatures higher than the bulk AFM/PM transition, a surface magnetic layer is proposed to develop, where the coupling between the magnetic moments located at magnetic impurities (Gd) is mediated by the Topological Surface State (TSS) via surface Dirac-fermion-mediated magnetic coupling. This hypothesis is supported by a gap opening at the Dirac point (DP) indicated by the surface-sensitive ARPES, a weak hysteresis loop measured by SQUID at temperatures between 30 and 100 K, XMCD measurements demonstrating a surface magnetic moment at 70 K and a temperature dependence of the electrical resistance exhibiting a mid-gap semiconducting behavior up to temperatures of 100–130 K, which correlates with the temperature dependence of the surface magnetization and confirms the conclusion that only TSS are located at the E F . The increase of the TSS’s spectral weight during resonant ARPES at a photon energy corresponding to the Gd 4d-4f edge support the hypothesis of a magnetic coupling between the Gd ions via the TSS and corresponding magnetic moment transfer at elevated temperatures. Finally, the observed out-of-plane and in-plane magnetization induced by synchrotron radiation (SR) due to non-equal depopulation of the TSS with opposite momentum, as seen through change in the Dirac gap value and the k ∥ -shift of the Dirac cone (DC) states, can be an indicator of the modification of the surface magnetic coupling mediated by the TSS.
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