CULTUROSOPHICAL CRITICISM OF THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION IN N.A. BERDYAEV'S PHILOSOPHICAL JOURNALISM

Research output

Abstract

The article traces the formation of N.A. Berdyaev's views on the Russian Revolution in the framework from uncertain expectations of some spiritual change to the evaluation of the real political events and finding ways to overcome their negative effects. The thinker's philosophical journalistic materials reveal his culturosophical approach to the analysis of political reality. A number of journalistic sources of the period of the first Russian Revolution show that the philosopher declared the real purpose of a liberation struggle was not only the deliverance of the underclass from a political and economic oppression, but also the cultural transformation of the country. The thinker recognized the revolution had the rightness of social justice, but at the same time feared revolutionary destructiveness that could replace monarchical despotism. Berdyaev perceived the real outcome of the events of 1905-1907 and 1917 as a disaster. Understanding and assessment of these events is the subject of Berdyaev's numerous articles included in the philosophical and journalistic collections of Milestones (1909), From Depth (1918), The Spiritual Foundations of the Russian Revolution (1918). The philosopher analyzed the social upheavals not through the party-political positions, but in spiritual and moral ways. He noted that in spite of the fact that the revolution had objective reasons, it nevertheless had selfish, utilitarian, soulless interests of its supporters, who resorted to revolutionary violence. Berdyaev considered the desire for social well-being as a perversion of the true nature of the revolution. He imposed the blame for this perversion on the Russian revolutionary intelligentsia and its low cultural level. Time and again he insisted that political liberation was possible only on the basis of the cultural growth and spiritual development of society. Berdyaev was always an implacable enemy of Bolshevism. However, he did not support the idea of the restoration of the monarchy. When in involuntary emigration, the philosopher continued to expose the "lies of communism", but but thought about the improvement of the post-revolutionary Russian life rather than about the return of the pre-revolutionary order. His philosophical and religious edition Put' [The Way] (1925-1940) became Berdyaev's ongoing journalistic podium in Paris. Through his regular publications on the pages of the magazine, the philosopher convinced readers that the Soviet government would be overthrown, but only in case if the people would rise up against it. He claimed that any revolution or its opponents were not to be idealized. He condemned the violence manifested on both sides. He treated any political goals of a social movement as a delusion in which the extremes of revolution and counter-revolution converged. The philosopher did not associate the revival of Russia with a particular ideology or a change of government in the country, but with the spiritual enlightenment of the people and the cultural transformation of the Russian society. He assured the emigre audience that the hard work for the ennoblement of the worker-peasant souls would lead to the fall of the Communist dictatorship. On this basis, he considered that the main task of the Russian Diaspora was not an armed overthrow of the revolution, but its spiritual debunking.

Summing up the research, the author concludes that Berdyaev's thoughts, set out in the philosophical and journalistic works, could not be used as a political tool or guide to direct actions, but his culturosophical approach to the analysis of political reality was relevant because any project for modernization of the society should take into account the cultural consciousness of society.

Original languageRussian
Pages (from-to)88-92
Number of pages5
JournalВЕСТНИК ТОМСКОГО ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОГО УНИВЕРСИТЕТА
Issue number431
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2018

Cite this

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title = "CULTUROSOPHICAL CRITICISM OF THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION IN N.A. BERDYAEV'S PHILOSOPHICAL JOURNALISM",
abstract = "The article traces the formation of N.A. Berdyaev's views on the Russian Revolution in the framework from uncertain expectations of some spiritual change to the evaluation of the real political events and finding ways to overcome their negative effects. The thinker's philosophical journalistic materials reveal his culturosophical approach to the analysis of political reality. A number of journalistic sources of the period of the first Russian Revolution show that the philosopher declared the real purpose of a liberation struggle was not only the deliverance of the underclass from a political and economic oppression, but also the cultural transformation of the country. The thinker recognized the revolution had the rightness of social justice, but at the same time feared revolutionary destructiveness that could replace monarchical despotism. Berdyaev perceived the real outcome of the events of 1905-1907 and 1917 as a disaster. Understanding and assessment of these events is the subject of Berdyaev's numerous articles included in the philosophical and journalistic collections of Milestones (1909), From Depth (1918), The Spiritual Foundations of the Russian Revolution (1918). The philosopher analyzed the social upheavals not through the party-political positions, but in spiritual and moral ways. He noted that in spite of the fact that the revolution had objective reasons, it nevertheless had selfish, utilitarian, soulless interests of its supporters, who resorted to revolutionary violence. Berdyaev considered the desire for social well-being as a perversion of the true nature of the revolution. He imposed the blame for this perversion on the Russian revolutionary intelligentsia and its low cultural level. Time and again he insisted that political liberation was possible only on the basis of the cultural growth and spiritual development of society. Berdyaev was always an implacable enemy of Bolshevism. However, he did not support the idea of the restoration of the monarchy. When in involuntary emigration, the philosopher continued to expose the {"}lies of communism{"}, but but thought about the improvement of the post-revolutionary Russian life rather than about the return of the pre-revolutionary order. His philosophical and religious edition Put' [The Way] (1925-1940) became Berdyaev's ongoing journalistic podium in Paris. Through his regular publications on the pages of the magazine, the philosopher convinced readers that the Soviet government would be overthrown, but only in case if the people would rise up against it. He claimed that any revolution or its opponents were not to be idealized. He condemned the violence manifested on both sides. He treated any political goals of a social movement as a delusion in which the extremes of revolution and counter-revolution converged. The philosopher did not associate the revival of Russia with a particular ideology or a change of government in the country, but with the spiritual enlightenment of the people and the cultural transformation of the Russian society. He assured the emigre audience that the hard work for the ennoblement of the worker-peasant souls would lead to the fall of the Communist dictatorship. On this basis, he considered that the main task of the Russian Diaspora was not an armed overthrow of the revolution, but its spiritual debunking.Summing up the research, the author concludes that Berdyaev's thoughts, set out in the philosophical and journalistic works, could not be used as a political tool or guide to direct actions, but his culturosophical approach to the analysis of political reality was relevant because any project for modernization of the society should take into account the cultural consciousness of society.",
keywords = "N.A. Berdyaev, Russian revolution, journalism, culturosophical interpretation of political process.",
author = "Воскресенская, {Марина Аркадьевна}",
year = "2018",
month = "6",
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journal = "ВЕСТНИК ТОМСКОГО ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОГО УНИВЕРСИТЕТА",
issn = "1561-7793",
publisher = "Национальный исследовательский Томский государственный университет",
number = "431",

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N2 - The article traces the formation of N.A. Berdyaev's views on the Russian Revolution in the framework from uncertain expectations of some spiritual change to the evaluation of the real political events and finding ways to overcome their negative effects. The thinker's philosophical journalistic materials reveal his culturosophical approach to the analysis of political reality. A number of journalistic sources of the period of the first Russian Revolution show that the philosopher declared the real purpose of a liberation struggle was not only the deliverance of the underclass from a political and economic oppression, but also the cultural transformation of the country. The thinker recognized the revolution had the rightness of social justice, but at the same time feared revolutionary destructiveness that could replace monarchical despotism. Berdyaev perceived the real outcome of the events of 1905-1907 and 1917 as a disaster. Understanding and assessment of these events is the subject of Berdyaev's numerous articles included in the philosophical and journalistic collections of Milestones (1909), From Depth (1918), The Spiritual Foundations of the Russian Revolution (1918). The philosopher analyzed the social upheavals not through the party-political positions, but in spiritual and moral ways. He noted that in spite of the fact that the revolution had objective reasons, it nevertheless had selfish, utilitarian, soulless interests of its supporters, who resorted to revolutionary violence. Berdyaev considered the desire for social well-being as a perversion of the true nature of the revolution. He imposed the blame for this perversion on the Russian revolutionary intelligentsia and its low cultural level. Time and again he insisted that political liberation was possible only on the basis of the cultural growth and spiritual development of society. Berdyaev was always an implacable enemy of Bolshevism. However, he did not support the idea of the restoration of the monarchy. When in involuntary emigration, the philosopher continued to expose the "lies of communism", but but thought about the improvement of the post-revolutionary Russian life rather than about the return of the pre-revolutionary order. His philosophical and religious edition Put' [The Way] (1925-1940) became Berdyaev's ongoing journalistic podium in Paris. Through his regular publications on the pages of the magazine, the philosopher convinced readers that the Soviet government would be overthrown, but only in case if the people would rise up against it. He claimed that any revolution or its opponents were not to be idealized. He condemned the violence manifested on both sides. He treated any political goals of a social movement as a delusion in which the extremes of revolution and counter-revolution converged. The philosopher did not associate the revival of Russia with a particular ideology or a change of government in the country, but with the spiritual enlightenment of the people and the cultural transformation of the Russian society. He assured the emigre audience that the hard work for the ennoblement of the worker-peasant souls would lead to the fall of the Communist dictatorship. On this basis, he considered that the main task of the Russian Diaspora was not an armed overthrow of the revolution, but its spiritual debunking.Summing up the research, the author concludes that Berdyaev's thoughts, set out in the philosophical and journalistic works, could not be used as a political tool or guide to direct actions, but his culturosophical approach to the analysis of political reality was relevant because any project for modernization of the society should take into account the cultural consciousness of society.

AB - The article traces the formation of N.A. Berdyaev's views on the Russian Revolution in the framework from uncertain expectations of some spiritual change to the evaluation of the real political events and finding ways to overcome their negative effects. The thinker's philosophical journalistic materials reveal his culturosophical approach to the analysis of political reality. A number of journalistic sources of the period of the first Russian Revolution show that the philosopher declared the real purpose of a liberation struggle was not only the deliverance of the underclass from a political and economic oppression, but also the cultural transformation of the country. The thinker recognized the revolution had the rightness of social justice, but at the same time feared revolutionary destructiveness that could replace monarchical despotism. Berdyaev perceived the real outcome of the events of 1905-1907 and 1917 as a disaster. Understanding and assessment of these events is the subject of Berdyaev's numerous articles included in the philosophical and journalistic collections of Milestones (1909), From Depth (1918), The Spiritual Foundations of the Russian Revolution (1918). The philosopher analyzed the social upheavals not through the party-political positions, but in spiritual and moral ways. He noted that in spite of the fact that the revolution had objective reasons, it nevertheless had selfish, utilitarian, soulless interests of its supporters, who resorted to revolutionary violence. Berdyaev considered the desire for social well-being as a perversion of the true nature of the revolution. He imposed the blame for this perversion on the Russian revolutionary intelligentsia and its low cultural level. Time and again he insisted that political liberation was possible only on the basis of the cultural growth and spiritual development of society. Berdyaev was always an implacable enemy of Bolshevism. However, he did not support the idea of the restoration of the monarchy. When in involuntary emigration, the philosopher continued to expose the "lies of communism", but but thought about the improvement of the post-revolutionary Russian life rather than about the return of the pre-revolutionary order. His philosophical and religious edition Put' [The Way] (1925-1940) became Berdyaev's ongoing journalistic podium in Paris. Through his regular publications on the pages of the magazine, the philosopher convinced readers that the Soviet government would be overthrown, but only in case if the people would rise up against it. He claimed that any revolution or its opponents were not to be idealized. He condemned the violence manifested on both sides. He treated any political goals of a social movement as a delusion in which the extremes of revolution and counter-revolution converged. The philosopher did not associate the revival of Russia with a particular ideology or a change of government in the country, but with the spiritual enlightenment of the people and the cultural transformation of the Russian society. He assured the emigre audience that the hard work for the ennoblement of the worker-peasant souls would lead to the fall of the Communist dictatorship. On this basis, he considered that the main task of the Russian Diaspora was not an armed overthrow of the revolution, but its spiritual debunking.Summing up the research, the author concludes that Berdyaev's thoughts, set out in the philosophical and journalistic works, could not be used as a political tool or guide to direct actions, but his culturosophical approach to the analysis of political reality was relevant because any project for modernization of the society should take into account the cultural consciousness of society.

KW - N.A. Berdyaev

KW - Russian revolution

KW - journalism

KW - culturosophical interpretation of political process.

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