The review summarizes previous and very recent data on the luminescent properties of natural low-dimensional nanostructures in tetrahedrally coordinated semiconductors which are two particular types of extended crystal lattice defects: stacking faults (SF) and dislocations. Experimental data obtained in diamond-like, zink-blend and wurtzite lattice structures revealed intrinsic luminescence bands with the specific for given material properties for both types of the defects. The data are discussed in the framework of suggested theoretical models and non-solved issues of the interpretation are underlined. An unexpected intrinsic luminescence of quantum barriers formed by SF in sphalerite crystals caused by its dipole moment due to spontaneous polarization in wurtzite phase SF of the width even as narrow as dislocation dissociation width as well as the presence of quantum well formed by SF in wurtzite type crystals are suggested to be included for the revision of the previous interpretation of the dislocation-related luminescence mechanisms. The possibility of usage of the extended defects as active elements of light-emitting devices is considered.