### Abstract

A principal objective of our work was to illustrate the existence of unknown trends in the E_{CB}=f(E_{bg}) and the E_{VB}=f(E_{bg}) behavior for certain classes of compounds that also included a set of bismuthate photocatalysts; new trends may easily be hidden within more general trends. Indeed, when the data for the bismuthates are added to data related to novel visible-light-active (VLA) photocatalysts, the trend remains the same with high significance levels for the E_{VB}=f(E_{bg}) linear correlation. Using well-known data for complex (ternary) oxides, the search for new trends in the behavior of the E_{CB}=f(E_{bg}) and the E_{VB}=f(E_{bg}) dependences opens up the potential to develop new VLA photocatalysts. The feasibility of new desired trends can be estimated a priori using a modern theoretical analysis of the electronic structure of targeted semiconductors; note that new trends in the behavior of E_{CB} and E_{VB} versus bandgap energy E_{BG} have been established for CaBi_{6}O_{10}, Sr_{2}Bi_{2}O_{5}, Sr_{3}Bi_{2}O_{6}, and Sr_{6}Bi_{2}O_{11}. We also re-examined earlier symmetric-type plots for a set consisting of a large number of simple (binary) and a set consisting of complex (ternary) metal oxides and find some significant differences. We herein report a novel trend in the empirical dependence of the energy positions of conduction bands (E_{CB}) and valence bands (E_{VB}) on bandgap energies (E_{bg}) for alkali earth metal bismuthate semiconductor photocatalysts for which we show that their dependences follow the linear functions E_{CB}=A+BE_{bg} and E_{VB}=a+bE_{bg}. However, contrary to earlier symmetric relationships of some metal oxides for which A=a=1.23 eV, B=−0.5, and b=0.5 toward water splitting, the relationships found for the bismuthates show them to be asymmetric with negative slopes (B<0, b<0) and a converging point A=a=4.5 eV. Also re-examined are the earlier symmetric-type plots for a set consisting of a large number of simple (binary) and a set consisting of complex (ternary) metal oxides and find some significant differences. Variations in both slopes (B<0 and b>0) and the converging point (1.4 eV<A=a<2.0 eV) is demonstrated. The photoactivity of some strontium bismuthates is predicted toward the photoelectrochemical reduction of CO_{2} from the novel trend in behavior of their bands’ energy positions relative to their bandgap energies.

Original language | English |
---|---|

Pages (from-to) | 3534-3541 |

Number of pages | 8 |

Journal | ChemCatChem |

Volume | 11 |

Issue number | 15 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - 1 Jan 2019 |

### Fingerprint

### Scopus subject areas

- Catalysis
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry

### Cite this

*ChemCatChem*,

*11*(15), 3534-3541. https://doi.org/10.1002/cctc.201900439

}

*ChemCatChem*, vol. 11, no. 15, pp. 3534-3541. https://doi.org/10.1002/cctc.201900439

**Considerations of Trends in Heterogeneous Photocatalysis. Correlations between Conduction and Valence Band Energies with Bandgap Energies of Various Photocatalysts.** / Shtarev, Dmitry S.; Shtareva, Anna V.; Ryabchuk, Vladimir K.; Rudakova, Aida V.; Serpone, Nick.

Research output

TY - JOUR

T1 - Considerations of Trends in Heterogeneous Photocatalysis. Correlations between Conduction and Valence Band Energies with Bandgap Energies of Various Photocatalysts

AU - Shtarev, Dmitry S.

AU - Shtareva, Anna V.

AU - Ryabchuk, Vladimir K.

AU - Rudakova, Aida V.

AU - Serpone, Nick

PY - 2019/1/1

Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - A principal objective of our work was to illustrate the existence of unknown trends in the ECB=f(Ebg) and the EVB=f(Ebg) behavior for certain classes of compounds that also included a set of bismuthate photocatalysts; new trends may easily be hidden within more general trends. Indeed, when the data for the bismuthates are added to data related to novel visible-light-active (VLA) photocatalysts, the trend remains the same with high significance levels for the EVB=f(Ebg) linear correlation. Using well-known data for complex (ternary) oxides, the search for new trends in the behavior of the ECB=f(Ebg) and the EVB=f(Ebg) dependences opens up the potential to develop new VLA photocatalysts. The feasibility of new desired trends can be estimated a priori using a modern theoretical analysis of the electronic structure of targeted semiconductors; note that new trends in the behavior of ECB and EVB versus bandgap energy EBG have been established for CaBi6O10, Sr2Bi2O5, Sr3Bi2O6, and Sr6Bi2O11. We also re-examined earlier symmetric-type plots for a set consisting of a large number of simple (binary) and a set consisting of complex (ternary) metal oxides and find some significant differences. We herein report a novel trend in the empirical dependence of the energy positions of conduction bands (ECB) and valence bands (EVB) on bandgap energies (Ebg) for alkali earth metal bismuthate semiconductor photocatalysts for which we show that their dependences follow the linear functions ECB=A+BEbg and EVB=a+bEbg. However, contrary to earlier symmetric relationships of some metal oxides for which A=a=1.23 eV, B=−0.5, and b=0.5 toward water splitting, the relationships found for the bismuthates show them to be asymmetric with negative slopes (B<0, b<0) and a converging point A=a=4.5 eV. Also re-examined are the earlier symmetric-type plots for a set consisting of a large number of simple (binary) and a set consisting of complex (ternary) metal oxides and find some significant differences. Variations in both slopes (B<0 and b>0) and the converging point (1.4 eV<A=a<2.0 eV) is demonstrated. The photoactivity of some strontium bismuthates is predicted toward the photoelectrochemical reduction of CO2 from the novel trend in behavior of their bands’ energy positions relative to their bandgap energies.

AB - A principal objective of our work was to illustrate the existence of unknown trends in the ECB=f(Ebg) and the EVB=f(Ebg) behavior for certain classes of compounds that also included a set of bismuthate photocatalysts; new trends may easily be hidden within more general trends. Indeed, when the data for the bismuthates are added to data related to novel visible-light-active (VLA) photocatalysts, the trend remains the same with high significance levels for the EVB=f(Ebg) linear correlation. Using well-known data for complex (ternary) oxides, the search for new trends in the behavior of the ECB=f(Ebg) and the EVB=f(Ebg) dependences opens up the potential to develop new VLA photocatalysts. The feasibility of new desired trends can be estimated a priori using a modern theoretical analysis of the electronic structure of targeted semiconductors; note that new trends in the behavior of ECB and EVB versus bandgap energy EBG have been established for CaBi6O10, Sr2Bi2O5, Sr3Bi2O6, and Sr6Bi2O11. We also re-examined earlier symmetric-type plots for a set consisting of a large number of simple (binary) and a set consisting of complex (ternary) metal oxides and find some significant differences. We herein report a novel trend in the empirical dependence of the energy positions of conduction bands (ECB) and valence bands (EVB) on bandgap energies (Ebg) for alkali earth metal bismuthate semiconductor photocatalysts for which we show that their dependences follow the linear functions ECB=A+BEbg and EVB=a+bEbg. However, contrary to earlier symmetric relationships of some metal oxides for which A=a=1.23 eV, B=−0.5, and b=0.5 toward water splitting, the relationships found for the bismuthates show them to be asymmetric with negative slopes (B<0, b<0) and a converging point A=a=4.5 eV. Also re-examined are the earlier symmetric-type plots for a set consisting of a large number of simple (binary) and a set consisting of complex (ternary) metal oxides and find some significant differences. Variations in both slopes (B<0 and b>0) and the converging point (1.4 eV<A=a<2.0 eV) is demonstrated. The photoactivity of some strontium bismuthates is predicted toward the photoelectrochemical reduction of CO2 from the novel trend in behavior of their bands’ energy positions relative to their bandgap energies.

KW - Bandgap energies

KW - Binary and ternary metal-oxide photocatalysts

KW - Bismuthate photocatalysts

KW - Conduction and valence band energies

KW - Matsumoto plots

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85068504819&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1002/cctc.201900439

DO - 10.1002/cctc.201900439

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85068504819

VL - 11

SP - 3534

EP - 3541

JO - ChemCatChem

JF - ChemCatChem

SN - 1867-3880

IS - 15

ER -