The chapter is devoted to the consideration of sex determination in vertebrate groups of nonmammalians: fish, amphibians, reptiles, and birds. Attention is drawn to the fact that all these groups of animals, unlike mammals, are implemented hormonal control options for primary sex determination, and there is a possibility of sex reversion. Determination of gonadal development in vertebrates like testis or ovary was initially controlled mainly by sex hormones (fish and amphibians). Later, various sex determining genes were involved in this process. The system was quite plastic and was able to respond to changes in external conditions (reptiles). The appearance of heteromorphic sex chromosomes (birds) has led to the emer-gence of some specific W chromosomal signal, which provides estrogen control of the development of a heterogametic sex. In mammals, the control of the primary determination of sex (the appearance of the gonad) becomes purely genetic, and the role of sex hormones is reduced to the differentiation of testis or ovaries.
Scopus subject areas
- Developmental Biology
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology (miscellaneous)