The authors deposited thin films of tin oxide on substrates of silicon and stainless steel by using atomic layer deposition (ALD) with tetraethyltin precursors. In this process, the authors used various coreactants such as water, oxygen, remote oxygen plasma, hydrogen peroxide, and ozone. The growth rates of films were studied as functions of the deposition temperature, the pulse times of the precursor and coreactant, and the number of ALD cycles, and the optimal growth conditions were determined. The film growth rates were found to be 0.025, 0.045, and 0.07 nm per cycle within the optimal growth conditions and ALD temperature windows for H2O2, O3, and O2 plasma, respectively. Using H2O or O2 did not prompt film growth. The films deposited using O3 and H2O2 had good continuity and low roughness, while the morphology of a coating prepared using oxygen plasma depended greatly on the deposition temperature. The films produced at temperatures below 300 °C were amorphous, irrespective of the coreactant used. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the samples mainly contained tin in the +4 oxidation state. The films deposited on stainless steel had high reversible capacity above 900 mA h g-1, exceptional cycleability, and good electrochemical performance as anodes for lithium-ion batteries.
|Journal||Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces and Films|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Jan 2017|
Scopus subject areas
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Surfaces and Interfaces
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films