Atomic layer deposition of nio to produce active material for thin-film lithium-ion batteries

Yury Koshtyal, Denis Nazarov, Ilya Ezhov, Ilya Mitrofanov, Artem Kim, Aleksander Rymyantsev, Oleksiy Lyutakov, Anatoly Popovich, Maxim Maximov

Research outputpeer-review

Abstract

Atomic layer deposition (ALD) provides a promising route for depositing uniform thin-film electrodes for Li-ion batteries. In this work, bis(methylcyclopentadienyl) nickel(II) (Ni(MeCp)2) and bis(cyclopentadienyl) nickel(II) (NiCp2) were used as precursors for NiO ALD. Oxygen plasma was used as a counter-reactant. The films were studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray reflectometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results show that the optimal temperature for the deposition for NiCp2 was 200–300 °C, but the optimal Ni(MeCp)2 growth per ALD cycle was 0.011–0.012 nm for both precursors at 250–300 °C. The films deposited using NiCp2 and oxygen plasma at 300 °C using optimal ALD condition consisted mainly of stoichiometric polycrystalline NiO with high density (6.6 g/cm3) and low roughness (0.34 nm). However, the films contain carbon impurities. The NiO films (thickness 28–30 nm) deposited on stainless steel showed a specific capacity above 1300 mAh/g, which is significantly more than the theoretical capacity of bulk NiO (718 mAh/g) because it includes the capacity of the NiO film and the pseudo-capacity of the gel-like solid electrolyte interface film. The presence of pseudo-capacity and its increase during cycling is discussed based on a detailed analysis of cyclic voltammograms and charge–discharge curves (U(C)).
Original languageEnglish
Article number301
Number of pages16
JournalCoatings
Volume9
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2019

Scopus subject areas

  • Surfaces and Interfaces
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Materials Chemistry

Cite this

Koshtyal, Y., Nazarov, D., Ezhov, I., Mitrofanov, I., Kim, A., Rymyantsev, A., ... Maximov, M. (2019). Atomic layer deposition of nio to produce active material for thin-film lithium-ion batteries. Coatings, 9(5), [301]. https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9050301
Koshtyal, Yury ; Nazarov, Denis ; Ezhov, Ilya ; Mitrofanov, Ilya ; Kim, Artem ; Rymyantsev, Aleksander ; Lyutakov, Oleksiy ; Popovich, Anatoly ; Maximov, Maxim. / Atomic layer deposition of nio to produce active material for thin-film lithium-ion batteries. In: Coatings. 2019 ; Vol. 9, No. 5.
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abstract = "Atomic layer deposition (ALD) provides a promising route for depositing uniform thin-film electrodes for Li-ion batteries. In this work, bis(methylcyclopentadienyl) nickel(II) (Ni(MeCp)2) and bis(cyclopentadienyl) nickel(II) (NiCp2) were used as precursors for NiO ALD. Oxygen plasma was used as a counter-reactant. The films were studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray reflectometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results show that the optimal temperature for the deposition for NiCp2 was 200–300 °C, but the optimal Ni(MeCp)2 growth per ALD cycle was 0.011–0.012 nm for both precursors at 250–300 °C. The films deposited using NiCp2 and oxygen plasma at 300 °C using optimal ALD condition consisted mainly of stoichiometric polycrystalline NiO with high density (6.6 g/cm3) and low roughness (0.34 nm). However, the films contain carbon impurities. The NiO films (thickness 28–30 nm) deposited on stainless steel showed a specific capacity above 1300 mAh/g, which is significantly more than the theoretical capacity of bulk NiO (718 mAh/g) because it includes the capacity of the NiO film and the pseudo-capacity of the gel-like solid electrolyte interface film. The presence of pseudo-capacity and its increase during cycling is discussed based on a detailed analysis of cyclic voltammograms and charge–discharge curves (U(C))",
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Koshtyal, Y, Nazarov, D, Ezhov, I, Mitrofanov, I, Kim, A, Rymyantsev, A, Lyutakov, O, Popovich, A & Maximov, M 2019, 'Atomic layer deposition of nio to produce active material for thin-film lithium-ion batteries', Coatings, vol. 9, no. 5, 301. https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9050301

Atomic layer deposition of nio to produce active material for thin-film lithium-ion batteries. / Koshtyal, Yury; Nazarov, Denis; Ezhov, Ilya; Mitrofanov, Ilya; Kim, Artem; Rymyantsev, Aleksander; Lyutakov, Oleksiy; Popovich, Anatoly; Maximov, Maxim.

In: Coatings, Vol. 9, No. 5, 301, 01.05.2019.

Research outputpeer-review

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T1 - Atomic layer deposition of nio to produce active material for thin-film lithium-ion batteries

AU - Koshtyal, Yury

AU - Nazarov, Denis

AU - Ezhov, Ilya

AU - Mitrofanov, Ilya

AU - Kim, Artem

AU - Rymyantsev, Aleksander

AU - Lyutakov, Oleksiy

AU - Popovich, Anatoly

AU - Maximov, Maxim

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N2 - Atomic layer deposition (ALD) provides a promising route for depositing uniform thin-film electrodes for Li-ion batteries. In this work, bis(methylcyclopentadienyl) nickel(II) (Ni(MeCp)2) and bis(cyclopentadienyl) nickel(II) (NiCp2) were used as precursors for NiO ALD. Oxygen plasma was used as a counter-reactant. The films were studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray reflectometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results show that the optimal temperature for the deposition for NiCp2 was 200–300 °C, but the optimal Ni(MeCp)2 growth per ALD cycle was 0.011–0.012 nm for both precursors at 250–300 °C. The films deposited using NiCp2 and oxygen plasma at 300 °C using optimal ALD condition consisted mainly of stoichiometric polycrystalline NiO with high density (6.6 g/cm3) and low roughness (0.34 nm). However, the films contain carbon impurities. The NiO films (thickness 28–30 nm) deposited on stainless steel showed a specific capacity above 1300 mAh/g, which is significantly more than the theoretical capacity of bulk NiO (718 mAh/g) because it includes the capacity of the NiO film and the pseudo-capacity of the gel-like solid electrolyte interface film. The presence of pseudo-capacity and its increase during cycling is discussed based on a detailed analysis of cyclic voltammograms and charge–discharge curves (U(C))

AB - Atomic layer deposition (ALD) provides a promising route for depositing uniform thin-film electrodes for Li-ion batteries. In this work, bis(methylcyclopentadienyl) nickel(II) (Ni(MeCp)2) and bis(cyclopentadienyl) nickel(II) (NiCp2) were used as precursors for NiO ALD. Oxygen plasma was used as a counter-reactant. The films were studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray reflectometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results show that the optimal temperature for the deposition for NiCp2 was 200–300 °C, but the optimal Ni(MeCp)2 growth per ALD cycle was 0.011–0.012 nm for both precursors at 250–300 °C. The films deposited using NiCp2 and oxygen plasma at 300 °C using optimal ALD condition consisted mainly of stoichiometric polycrystalline NiO with high density (6.6 g/cm3) and low roughness (0.34 nm). However, the films contain carbon impurities. The NiO films (thickness 28–30 nm) deposited on stainless steel showed a specific capacity above 1300 mAh/g, which is significantly more than the theoretical capacity of bulk NiO (718 mAh/g) because it includes the capacity of the NiO film and the pseudo-capacity of the gel-like solid electrolyte interface film. The presence of pseudo-capacity and its increase during cycling is discussed based on a detailed analysis of cyclic voltammograms and charge–discharge curves (U(C))

KW - Atomic layer deposition

KW - Li-ion batteries

KW - Nickel oxide

KW - Thin films

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Koshtyal Y, Nazarov D, Ezhov I, Mitrofanov I, Kim A, Rymyantsev A et al. Atomic layer deposition of nio to produce active material for thin-film lithium-ion batteries. Coatings. 2019 May 1;9(5). 301. https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9050301