The systematics of Oriental freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae) is poorly known. Here, we present an integrative revision of the genus Trapezoideus Simpson, 1900 to further understanding of freshwater mussel diversity in the region. We demonstrate that Trapezoideus as currently circumscribed is non-monophyletic, with its former species belonging to six other genera, one of which is new to science and described here. We recognize Trapezoideus as a monotypic genus, comprised of the type species, T. foliaceus. Trapezoideus comptus, T. misellus, T. pallegoixi, and T. peninsularis are transferred to the genus Contradens, T. subclathratus is moved to Indonaia, and T. theca is transferred to Lamellidens. Trapezoideus prashadi is found to be a junior synonym of Arcidopsis footei. Trapezoideus dallianus, T. nesemanni, T. panhai, T. peguensis, and two species new to science are placed in Yaukthwagen. nov. This genus appears to be endemic of the Western Indochina Subregion. The two new species, Yaukthwa paiensissp. nov. and Y. inlenensissp. nov., are both endemic to the Salween River basin. Our results highlight that Southeast Asia is a species-rich freshwater mussel diversity hotspot with numerous local endemic species, which are in need of special conservation efforts.
Scopus subject areas