A Cohort Approach to Real-Time Detection of Acute HIV Infections Among People Who Inject Drugs in St. Petersburg, Russia

Olga V Toussova, Andrei P Kozlov, Sergei V Verevochkin, Kathryn E Lancaster, Alla V Shaboltas, Alexei Masharsky, Elena Dukhovlinova, William C Miller, Irving F Hoffman

Research output

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

To detect acute HIV infections (AHIs) in real time among people who inject drugs (PWID) in St. Petersburg, Russia and to test the feasibility of this approach. Prospective cohort study. One hundred seronegative or acutely HIV-infected at screening PWID were enrolled and followed until the end of the 12-month pilot period. Each participant was evaluated, tested, and counseled for HIV monthly. Two HIV tests were used: HIV antibody and HIV RNA PCR. If diagnosed with AHI, participants were followed weekly for a month; then, monthly for 3 months; and then, quarterly for the duration of the follow-up period. HIV risk behavior was assessed at each study visit. Most enrolled PWID were 30-39 years old, male, completed high school or more, not employed full-time, heroin users, and frequently shared injection paraphernalia. AHI prevalence at screening was 1.8% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.4, 5.5]. Three participants with AHI at enrollment represented 3% (95% CI: 0.6, 8.5) of the 100 participants who consented to enroll. Among the HIV-uninfected participants (n = 97), the AHI incidence over time was 9.3 per 100 person-years. Persons with AHI were more likely to report alcohol intoxication within the prior 30 days. This was the first study to detect AHI using a cohort approach. The approach proved to be feasible: recruitment, retention, AHI detection, and virological endpoints were successfully reached. A cost analysis in a real-world setting would be required to determine if this strategy could be brought to scale. The study revealed continued high HIV incidence rate among PWID in St. Petersburg, Russia and the importance of prevention and treatment programs for this group.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)261-268
Number of pages8
JournalAIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Volume34
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018

Fingerprint

Russia
HIV Infections
HIV
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Confidence Intervals
Alcoholic Intoxication
HIV Antibodies
Heroin
Incidence
Risk-Taking
Cohort Studies
Prospective Studies
RNA
Costs and Cost Analysis
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Injections

Cite this

Toussova, Olga V ; Kozlov, Andrei P ; Verevochkin, Sergei V ; Lancaster, Kathryn E ; Shaboltas, Alla V ; Masharsky, Alexei ; Dukhovlinova, Elena ; Miller, William C ; Hoffman, Irving F. / A Cohort Approach to Real-Time Detection of Acute HIV Infections Among People Who Inject Drugs in St. Petersburg, Russia. In: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses. 2018 ; Vol. 34, No. 3. pp. 261-268.
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abstract = "To detect acute HIV infections (AHIs) in real time among people who inject drugs (PWID) in St. Petersburg, Russia and to test the feasibility of this approach. Prospective cohort study. One hundred seronegative or acutely HIV-infected at screening PWID were enrolled and followed until the end of the 12-month pilot period. Each participant was evaluated, tested, and counseled for HIV monthly. Two HIV tests were used: HIV antibody and HIV RNA PCR. If diagnosed with AHI, participants were followed weekly for a month; then, monthly for 3 months; and then, quarterly for the duration of the follow-up period. HIV risk behavior was assessed at each study visit. Most enrolled PWID were 30-39 years old, male, completed high school or more, not employed full-time, heroin users, and frequently shared injection paraphernalia. AHI prevalence at screening was 1.8{\%} [95{\%} confidence interval (CI): 0.4, 5.5]. Three participants with AHI at enrollment represented 3{\%} (95{\%} CI: 0.6, 8.5) of the 100 participants who consented to enroll. Among the HIV-uninfected participants (n = 97), the AHI incidence over time was 9.3 per 100 person-years. Persons with AHI were more likely to report alcohol intoxication within the prior 30 days. This was the first study to detect AHI using a cohort approach. The approach proved to be feasible: recruitment, retention, AHI detection, and virological endpoints were successfully reached. A cost analysis in a real-world setting would be required to determine if this strategy could be brought to scale. The study revealed continued high HIV incidence rate among PWID in St. Petersburg, Russia and the importance of prevention and treatment programs for this group.",
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A Cohort Approach to Real-Time Detection of Acute HIV Infections Among People Who Inject Drugs in St. Petersburg, Russia. / Toussova, Olga V; Kozlov, Andrei P; Verevochkin, Sergei V; Lancaster, Kathryn E; Shaboltas, Alla V; Masharsky, Alexei; Dukhovlinova, Elena; Miller, William C; Hoffman, Irving F.

In: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, Vol. 34, No. 3, 2018, p. 261-268.

Research output

TY - JOUR

T1 - A Cohort Approach to Real-Time Detection of Acute HIV Infections Among People Who Inject Drugs in St. Petersburg, Russia

AU - Toussova, Olga V

AU - Kozlov, Andrei P

AU - Verevochkin, Sergei V

AU - Lancaster, Kathryn E

AU - Shaboltas, Alla V

AU - Masharsky, Alexei

AU - Dukhovlinova, Elena

AU - Miller, William C

AU - Hoffman, Irving F

PY - 2018

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N2 - To detect acute HIV infections (AHIs) in real time among people who inject drugs (PWID) in St. Petersburg, Russia and to test the feasibility of this approach. Prospective cohort study. One hundred seronegative or acutely HIV-infected at screening PWID were enrolled and followed until the end of the 12-month pilot period. Each participant was evaluated, tested, and counseled for HIV monthly. Two HIV tests were used: HIV antibody and HIV RNA PCR. If diagnosed with AHI, participants were followed weekly for a month; then, monthly for 3 months; and then, quarterly for the duration of the follow-up period. HIV risk behavior was assessed at each study visit. Most enrolled PWID were 30-39 years old, male, completed high school or more, not employed full-time, heroin users, and frequently shared injection paraphernalia. AHI prevalence at screening was 1.8% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.4, 5.5]. Three participants with AHI at enrollment represented 3% (95% CI: 0.6, 8.5) of the 100 participants who consented to enroll. Among the HIV-uninfected participants (n = 97), the AHI incidence over time was 9.3 per 100 person-years. Persons with AHI were more likely to report alcohol intoxication within the prior 30 days. This was the first study to detect AHI using a cohort approach. The approach proved to be feasible: recruitment, retention, AHI detection, and virological endpoints were successfully reached. A cost analysis in a real-world setting would be required to determine if this strategy could be brought to scale. The study revealed continued high HIV incidence rate among PWID in St. Petersburg, Russia and the importance of prevention and treatment programs for this group.

AB - To detect acute HIV infections (AHIs) in real time among people who inject drugs (PWID) in St. Petersburg, Russia and to test the feasibility of this approach. Prospective cohort study. One hundred seronegative or acutely HIV-infected at screening PWID were enrolled and followed until the end of the 12-month pilot period. Each participant was evaluated, tested, and counseled for HIV monthly. Two HIV tests were used: HIV antibody and HIV RNA PCR. If diagnosed with AHI, participants were followed weekly for a month; then, monthly for 3 months; and then, quarterly for the duration of the follow-up period. HIV risk behavior was assessed at each study visit. Most enrolled PWID were 30-39 years old, male, completed high school or more, not employed full-time, heroin users, and frequently shared injection paraphernalia. AHI prevalence at screening was 1.8% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.4, 5.5]. Three participants with AHI at enrollment represented 3% (95% CI: 0.6, 8.5) of the 100 participants who consented to enroll. Among the HIV-uninfected participants (n = 97), the AHI incidence over time was 9.3 per 100 person-years. Persons with AHI were more likely to report alcohol intoxication within the prior 30 days. This was the first study to detect AHI using a cohort approach. The approach proved to be feasible: recruitment, retention, AHI detection, and virological endpoints were successfully reached. A cost analysis in a real-world setting would be required to determine if this strategy could be brought to scale. The study revealed continued high HIV incidence rate among PWID in St. Petersburg, Russia and the importance of prevention and treatment programs for this group.

U2 - 10.1089/AID.2017.0076

DO - 10.1089/AID.2017.0076

M3 - Article

C2 - 29145741

VL - 34

SP - 261

EP - 268

JO - AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses

JF - AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses

SN - 0889-2229

IS - 3

ER -