Platelets are the smallest blood cells, and yet their total volume and surface area exceed those of all types of leukocytes combined. Platelets are produced by the bone marrow megakaryocytes and megakaryocytes in the lung microvessels. Approximately 50% of all platelets are produced in the lungs, which makes it possible to characterize them as the main site for the production of platelets. In small circuit of blood circulation, there are approximately 30% more platelets than in large circuit. This “excess” of platelets is necessary for the stabilization of the endothelial barrier of the lung vessels regulated by the platelet mediator sphingosine-1-phosphate, a regulator of tight junctions of endothelial cells. The circulating platelets have an amazing ability to “bud” new pro- and pre-platelets, giving rise to new platelets. The removal of platelets from circulation proceeds via their phagocytosis by spleen macrophages (if platelets are covered with IgG or are bound to immune complexes), or Kupffer liver cells and hepatocytes (if platelets have incomplete glycans or desialated proteins). In homeostatic conditions, most of the platelets are removed in liver. Platelet clearance in bacterial infections and sepsis is accelerated because of the activity of bacterial sialidases. Recognition of desialized platelet structures is carried out by the liver cells through the Asgr receptor. Despite DNA absence, the platelets are able to synthesize proteins at mRNAs that are present in majority of platelets. Activation of platelets leads to aggregation and exocytosis of the granule contents, and production of immunomodulating molecules. However, activation of platelets may be incomplete and has various consequences. In a non-classical activation model, platelets can release microparticles that contain about 600 different proteins. About 75% of microparticles in the blood of healthy donors are derived from platelets. Like as immune system cells, platelets are activated by numerous endogenous ligands (alarms), including ADP and ATP, which bind to purinergic receptors P2Y1, P2Y12 and P2X1. Platelets accumulate and retain 99% of the serotonin stored in the body. The platelets contribute to induction of inflammation by releasing proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and lipid mediators. In addition, platelets are the source of enzymes that accomplish the capacities of neutrophils and endothelium for production of anti-inflammatory lipid mediators that contribute to tissue repair following acute phase of inflammation.
|Translated title of the contribution||Blood platelets as activators and regulators of inflammatory and immune reactions. Part 1. Basic characteristics of platelets as inflammatory cells|
|Number of pages||12|
|Journal||Medical Immunology (Russia)|
|State||Published - 2018|
Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy