The structure of the muscular and nervous systems of the male Intoshia linei (Orthonectida)

Research output

Abstract

Orthonectida is a small group of parasites, which, according to recent studies, may be phylogenetically close to Annelida. Here, we describe the musculature and serotonin-like immunoreactive (SLIR) nervous system of male adults of Intoshia linei (Orthonectida) using immunohistochemistry and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The whole muscular system consists of four outer longitudinal and eight pairs of inner semicircular muscle fibres. Immunohistochemistry revealed six serotonin-like cells at the anterior part of the body, and two backward lateral longitudinal nerves, merging at the posterior end. Compared to females, the organization of the nervous system is modified and its progenetic origin seems unlikely. The general neuromuscular organization corresponds to the pattern of small-sized annelids, suggesting their possible phylogenetic affinity. Free-living males and females of the orthonectid I. linei may present a good example of a highly simplified Bilaterian with fully functioning nervous and muscular systems. This simplicity is secondary and is caused by two factors—the parasitic life style and miniaturization of free-living sexual stages.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages8
JournalActa Zoologica
Early online date14 Oct 2018
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 14 Oct 2018

Fingerprint

Annelida
nervous system
serotonin
Nervous System
immunohistochemistry
Serotonin
confocal laser scanning microscopy
Immunohistochemistry
muscle fibers
Organizations
lifestyle
Miniaturization
nerve tissue
annelid
Human Body
parasites
Confocal Microscopy
Life Style
microscopy
phylogeny

Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Cell Biology

Cite this

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title = "The structure of the muscular and nervous systems of the male Intoshia linei (Orthonectida)",
abstract = "Orthonectida is a small group of parasites, which, according to recent studies, may be phylogenetically close to Annelida. Here, we describe the musculature and serotonin-like immunoreactive (SLIR) nervous system of male adults of Intoshia linei (Orthonectida) using immunohistochemistry and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The whole muscular system consists of four outer longitudinal and eight pairs of inner semicircular muscle fibres. Immunohistochemistry revealed six serotonin-like cells at the anterior part of the body, and two backward lateral longitudinal nerves, merging at the posterior end. Compared to females, the organization of the nervous system is modified and its progenetic origin seems unlikely. The general neuromuscular organization corresponds to the pattern of small-sized annelids, suggesting their possible phylogenetic affinity. Free-living males and females of the orthonectid I. linei may present a good example of a highly simplified Bilaterian with fully functioning nervous and muscular systems. This simplicity is secondary and is caused by two factors—the parasitic life style and miniaturization of free-living sexual stages.",
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