To identify the factors that determine the economic behavior of indigenous peoples of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation. Methodology. The structured interview as the main research method is aimed at identifying the features of the modern household structure of farms, consumer habits, attitudes to money, wealth, and economic institutions. Results. In the course of studying the literature, six determinants affecting the economic consciousness and behavior of indigenous peoples of the Russian Arctic were identified: geo-ecological, social, psychological, economic, political-legal, and demographic. The empirical study in the Nenets ethno-cultural environment confirmed the presence of these determinantfactors, the first four of which being decisive. Research implications. The results of the study contribute to the development of public policy tools for the inclusion of the indigenous peoples of the North of the Arctic zone in the system of modern economic relations.