Рождение фукианского метода: Эпистемология/феноменология, психология/психиатрия

Translated title of the contribution: The birth of foucault’s method: Epistemology/phenomenology, psychology/psychiatry

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

This paper analyzes Foucault’s early thinking (from 1954 to 1957) as it bears on psychology, anthropology and psychiatry. The author maintains that Foucault’s texts from that period can be mined for the origins of the Foucault methodology, early indications of its scope, and its first applications. Although Foucault opposed a phenomenology of epistemology and allied himself with the latter, a close reading of his early work reveals a paradoxical synthesis of phenomenological and epistemological views. The influences of Georges Canguilhem, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, and Ludwig Binswanger were decisive here. Foucault adopted the “practice-to-theory” vector from Canguilhem and grounded the history of psychology and psychiatry on the study of essential oppositions: normal pathological, personality environment, evolution history. Merleau-Ponty’s theory allowed him to demonstrate that the ontological perspective of psychology and psychiatry does not match the subject of their research, which is the person and their experience. Foucault’s application of Binswanger and the idea of existence is to problematize the boundaries between psychology and psychiatry and their identity as sciences while formulating the problem of pathology and normality as crucial to their identification. He also considers mental illness as one of the forms of experience. Foucault thus goes beyond the boundaries of psychology and psychiatry to develop his archaeological method. In The Order of Things and The Archaeology of Knowledge he makes two philosophical maneuvers: in the first, he rejects the subject; in the second he abandons the continuity of history. Foucault’s early psychological and psychiatric discourse is then the first harbinger of his trespassing the boundaries of disciplines and schools, combining perspectives, and scrutinizing the foundations of scientific practice. A critical dialogue with his own earlier thought is the source of Foucault’s birth as a philosopher.

Translated title of the contributionThe birth of foucault’s method: Epistemology/phenomenology, psychology/psychiatry
Original languageRussian
Pages (from-to)25-50
Number of pages26
JournalLogos (Russian Federation)
Volume29
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2019

Scopus subject areas

  • Cultural Studies
  • Philosophy
  • Literature and Literary Theory

Keywords

  • Epistemology
  • Georges Canguilhem
  • Ludwig Binswanger
  • Maurice Merleau-Ponty
  • Michel Foucault
  • Phenomenology
  • Psychiatry
  • Psychology

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