An Eye-Tracking Study of Processing Sketches: Evidence from Russian

Tatiana Petrova, Valentina Bratash, Elizaveta Zhukatinskaya, Anastasiya Salnikova, Anastasiya Suhareva, Ekaterina Zhelezova

Research outputpeer-review

Abstract

As visual representation of information is getting more and more popularnowadays, studies of so called “creolized” texts integrating both verbal and nonverbal types of information are of high priority (Chernigovskaya et al., 2016,Petrova & Riekhakaynen, 2018). Sketchnoting is a perfect example of a creolizedtext, in which drawings or visual representations of complex information are aimed to make comprehension easier. Nevertheless, no experimental evidence has been provided so far concerning sketches as an educational material.This study was aimed at revealing specific features of verbal text and sketchperception and assessing sketchnoting efficiency. Our hypothesis was that readers process different formats of texts differently, sketches being easier to process and understand than a verbal text of the same content.To examine this issue, 20 Russian speaking high school students (Sirius Educational Centre, Sochi) were involved in the experiment. Four texts about biographies of Russian poets were converted into different sketches of three typical formats: linear, trajectory and radial. During the eye-tracking experiment, the participants were asked to learn 4 stimuli: 3 sketches and 1 classical text on different biographies. We measured the total dwell time, the total fixation count, average fixation duration for each verbal and non-verbal zone of the texts, for horizontal and diagonal zones. The comprehension was controlled by question-answer method, key words method, and scaling method, when they had to evaluate the level of difficulty while reading.The outcome has shown that a sketch in any format is read significantly faster and better than the text of the same content. The analysis of participants’ eye movements while reading the stimuli made it possible to propose a number of recommendations for creating sketches: (1.) It is better to separate areas of interest from each other; (2.) It is not necessary to use a diagonal position of the text because such zones are read significantly slower; (3.) It is better to control the reader’s attention with arrows/pointers as they help to learn the text faster. The best format of sketches is of the trajectory type; (4.) It is important to duplicate the information from the title because readers do not pay much attention to it; (5.) It is really helpful to back information with illustrations (e.g. to draw the portrait of the main character, if it is a biography). Supported by Russian Science Foundation (project No.14-18-02135).
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationNeurobiology of Speech and Language
Subtitle of host publicationProceedings of the 2nd International Workshop
EditorsOlga Shcherbakova, Yury Shtyrov
Place of PublicationСПб.
PublisherСкифия-принт
Pages34
ISBN (Print)9785986203232
Publication statusPublished - 25 Oct 2018
Event2nd International workshop "Neurobiology of Speech and Language" - Санкт-Петербург
Duration: 28 Sep 201829 Sep 2018

Conference

Conference2nd International workshop "Neurobiology of Speech and Language"
CountryRussian Federation
CityСанкт-Петербург
Period28/09/1829/09/18

Fingerprint

Reader
Experiment
Stimulus
Trajectory
Visual Representation
Fixation
Education
Scaling
Arrow
Controlled
Russian Poet
Key Words
High School Students
Eye Movements
Educational Materials

Scopus subject areas

  • Arts and Humanities(all)

Cite this

Petrova, T., Bratash, V., Zhukatinskaya, E., Salnikova, A., Suhareva, A., & Zhelezova, E. (2018). An Eye-Tracking Study of Processing Sketches: Evidence from Russian. In O. Shcherbakova, & Y. Shtyrov (Eds.), Neurobiology of Speech and Language : Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop (pp. 34). СПб.: Скифия-принт.
Petrova, Tatiana ; Bratash, Valentina ; Zhukatinskaya, Elizaveta ; Salnikova, Anastasiya ; Suhareva, Anastasiya ; Zhelezova, Ekaterina . / An Eye-Tracking Study of Processing Sketches: Evidence from Russian. Neurobiology of Speech and Language : Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop . editor / Olga Shcherbakova ; Yury Shtyrov. СПб. : Скифия-принт, 2018. pp. 34
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Petrova, T, Bratash, V, Zhukatinskaya, E, Salnikova, A, Suhareva, A & Zhelezova, E 2018, An Eye-Tracking Study of Processing Sketches: Evidence from Russian. in O Shcherbakova & Y Shtyrov (eds), Neurobiology of Speech and Language : Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop . Скифия-принт, СПб., pp. 34, Санкт-Петербург, 28/09/18.

An Eye-Tracking Study of Processing Sketches: Evidence from Russian. / Petrova, Tatiana ; Bratash, Valentina ; Zhukatinskaya, Elizaveta ; Salnikova, Anastasiya ; Suhareva, Anastasiya ; Zhelezova, Ekaterina .

Neurobiology of Speech and Language : Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop . ed. / Olga Shcherbakova; Yury Shtyrov. СПб. : Скифия-принт, 2018. p. 34.

Research outputpeer-review

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AU - Zhelezova, Ekaterina

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N2 - As visual representation of information is getting more and more popularnowadays, studies of so called “creolized” texts integrating both verbal and nonverbal types of information are of high priority (Chernigovskaya et al., 2016,Petrova & Riekhakaynen, 2018). Sketchnoting is a perfect example of a creolizedtext, in which drawings or visual representations of complex information are aimed to make comprehension easier. Nevertheless, no experimental evidence has been provided so far concerning sketches as an educational material.This study was aimed at revealing specific features of verbal text and sketchperception and assessing sketchnoting efficiency. Our hypothesis was that readers process different formats of texts differently, sketches being easier to process and understand than a verbal text of the same content.To examine this issue, 20 Russian speaking high school students (Sirius Educational Centre, Sochi) were involved in the experiment. Four texts about biographies of Russian poets were converted into different sketches of three typical formats: linear, trajectory and radial. During the eye-tracking experiment, the participants were asked to learn 4 stimuli: 3 sketches and 1 classical text on different biographies. We measured the total dwell time, the total fixation count, average fixation duration for each verbal and non-verbal zone of the texts, for horizontal and diagonal zones. The comprehension was controlled by question-answer method, key words method, and scaling method, when they had to evaluate the level of difficulty while reading.The outcome has shown that a sketch in any format is read significantly faster and better than the text of the same content. The analysis of participants’ eye movements while reading the stimuli made it possible to propose a number of recommendations for creating sketches: (1.) It is better to separate areas of interest from each other; (2.) It is not necessary to use a diagonal position of the text because such zones are read significantly slower; (3.) It is better to control the reader’s attention with arrows/pointers as they help to learn the text faster. The best format of sketches is of the trajectory type; (4.) It is important to duplicate the information from the title because readers do not pay much attention to it; (5.) It is really helpful to back information with illustrations (e.g. to draw the portrait of the main character, if it is a biography). Supported by Russian Science Foundation (project No.14-18-02135).

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Petrova T, Bratash V, Zhukatinskaya E, Salnikova A, Suhareva A, Zhelezova E. An Eye-Tracking Study of Processing Sketches: Evidence from Russian. In Shcherbakova O, Shtyrov Y, editors, Neurobiology of Speech and Language : Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop . СПб.: Скифия-принт. 2018. p. 34